Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)

Registration No. 333-230016

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus dated March 28, 2019)

 

 

Intec Pharma Ltd.

 

Up to $75,000,000

Ordinary Shares

 

 

 

We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, relating to the ordinary shares offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell ordinary shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000 from time to time through Cowen acting as our agent.

 

Our ordinary shares are traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “NTEC.” The last reported sale price for our ordinary shares on March 27, 2019, as quoted on the Nasdaq Capital Market, was $6.89 per ordinary share.

 

Sales of our ordinary shares, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Cowen is not required to sell any specific amount of securities, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cowen and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

The compensation to Cowen for sales of ordinary shares sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be an amount up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds of any ordinary shares sold under the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the ordinary shares on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

We are an emerging growth company as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act and, as such, we have elected to take advantage of certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and future filings.

 

Investing in our ordinary shares involves risks. See the section entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and in the documents we incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

Cowen

 

The date of this prospectus is March 28, 2019

 

 

Table of Contents 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

 

  Page
Prospectus Supplement  
   
About This Prospectus Supplement S-1
Prospectus Supplement Summary S-2
The Offering S-3
Risk Factors S-4
Forward-Looking Statements S-6
Use of Proceeds S-7
Dilution S-8
Material Tax Considerations S-9
Research Grants S-20
Plan of Distribution S-21
Legal Matters S-22
Experts S-22
Where You Can Find More Information S-22
Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference S-22
   
Prospectus  
   
About This Prospectus 1
Risk Factors 2
Forward-Looking Statements 3
Our Business 4
Use of Proceeds 5
The Securities We May Offer 6
Description of Ordinary Shares 7
Description of Warrants 11
Description of Subscription Rights 12
Description of Debt Securities 13
Description of Units 25
Plan of Distribution 27
Legal Matters 29
Experts 30
Where You Can Find More Information 30
Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference 30
Enforceability of Civil Liabilities 31

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. This document is in two parts. The first part is the prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference into the accompanying prospectus, which provides more general information about securities we may offer from time to time, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. We urge you to carefully read this prospectus supplement and the prospectus, and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, before buying any of the securities being offered under this prospectus supplement. This prospectus supplement may add or update information contained in the prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference therein. To the extent that any statement we make in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with statements made in the accompanying prospectus or any documents incorporated by reference therein that were filed before the date of this prospectus supplement, the statements made in this prospectus supplement will be deemed to modify or supersede those made in the accompanying prospectus and such documents incorporated by reference therein. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date – for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus – the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. 

 

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, or contained in any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. We have not, and Cowen has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and sale of these securities in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. We are not making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. Persons in possession of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus are required to inform themselves about and observe any such restrictions. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not, and under no circumstances are to be construed as, an advertisement or a public offering of securities in Israel. Any public offer or sale of securities in Israel may be made only in accordance with the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968 (which requires, among other things, the filing of a prospectus in Israel or an exemption therefrom). The information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or when any sale of our ordinary shares occurs. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, in their entirety, before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus supplement entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus contain summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated herein by reference as exhibits to the registration statement, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

 

This prospectus supplement incorporates by reference market data and certain industry data and forecasts that were obtained from market research databases, consultant surveys commissioned by us, publicly available information, reports of governmental agencies and industry publications and surveys. Industry surveys, publications, consultant surveys commissioned by us and forecasts generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. We have relied on certain data from third-party sources, including internal surveys, industry forecasts and market research, which we believe to be reliable based on our management’s knowledge of the industry. Statements as to our market position are based on the most currently available data. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the industry data presented in this annual report, our estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the headings “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated herein by reference.

 

Certain figures included in this prospectus supplement have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them.

 

When used herein, unless the context requires otherwise, references to the “Company, “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to Intec Pharma Ltd., an Israeli company and its U.S. subsidiary Intec Pharma Inc., unless the context otherwise requires.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our ordinary shares. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the information under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page S-4.

 

Our Company

 

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing drugs based on our proprietary Accordion Pill platform technology, which we refer to as the Accordion Pill. Our Accordion Pill is an oral drug delivery system that is designed to improve the efficacy and safety of existing drugs and drugs in development by utilizing an efficient gastric retention and specific release mechanism. Our product pipeline currently includes several product candidates in various clinical trial stages. Our leading product candidate, Accordion Pill Carbidopa/Levodopa, or AP-CD/LD, is being developed for the indication of treatment of Parkinson’s disease symptoms in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients. We have successfully completed a Phase II clinical trial for AP-CD/LD for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease symptoms in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients and have agreed with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, on the remaining clinical development program for AP-CD/LD for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease symptoms in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients, including the main principles of the single required pivotal Phase III clinical trial in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients.

 

We are currently conducting a pivotal Phase III clinical for AP-CD/LD for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease known as the ACCORDANCE study. In April 2016, we enrolled the first patient in the ACCORDANCE study and in October 2018, we completed enrollment. We currently expect to release top-line results in mid-2019. In our correspondence with the FDA, the FDA previously agreed that an acceptable regulatory pathway for AP-CD/LD would be to submit a new drug application, or NDA, pursuant to Section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which is a streamlined approval pathway that may accelerate the time to commercialize and decrease the costs of FDA approval for AP–CD/LD, as compared to those typically associated with a new chemical entity.

 

In February 2019, we announced that AP-CD/LD met the primary endpoint in a pharmacokinetic, or PK, study comparing the AP-CD/LD 50/500mg dosed three times daily, the most common dose used in our on-going ACCORDANCE study, to 1.5 tablets of CD/LD immediate release (Sinemet™) 25/100 dosed five times per day in Parkinson's disease patients.

 

We have invested in the commercial scale manufacture of AP-CD/LD, for which we are in partnership with LTS. In December 2018, the large commercial scale production line was delivered to LTS in Andernach, Germany. We are in the process of installing and connecting all the ancillary equipment and expect to begin the validation, bioequivalency and stability studies needed for approval of our commercial production processes in the coming months. After preliminary discussions with the FDA in anticipation of filing for marketing approval of AP-CD/LD, we remain confident we are on track to submit an NDA for approval of AP-CD/LD in mid- to late-2020, assuming positive topline data in the Accordance Study in mid-2019.

 

In addition, we have initiated a clinical development program for our Accordion Pill platform with the two primary cannabinoids contained in cannabis sativa, which we refer to as AP-Cannabinoids. We are formulating and testing cannabidiol, or CBD, and 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, for the treatment of various pain indications. AP-Cannabinoids are designed to extend the absorption phase of CBD and THC, with the goal of more consistent levels for an improved therapeutic effect which may address several major drawbacks of current methods of treatment, such as short duration of effect, delayed onset, variability of exposure, variability of the administered dose and adverse events that correlate with peak levels. In March 2017, we initiated a Phase I single-center, single-dose, randomized, three-way crossover clinical trial in Israel to compare the safety, tolerability and PK of AP-THC/CBD, with Sativex®, an oral buccal spray containing CBD and THC that is commercially available outside of the United States. Initial results demonstrate that the Accordion Pill platform is well-suited to safely deliver CBD and THC with significant improvements in exposure compared with Sativex. In December 2018, we initiated a PK study of AP-THC. We have completed the dosing of the AP-THC PK study and the data is in the process of being analyzed by a third party contract research organization per protocol. However, upon raw data review, the delivery of THC does not appear to meet our full program expectations. We await the full dataset and the statistical analysis to determine our next steps.

 

In December 2018, we reported that we successfully developed an Accordion Pill for a Novartis proprietary compound that met the required in vitro specifications set forth in a feasibility agreement with Novartis. We have mutually agreed to proceed with the program and plan to enter the clinic with a first-in-human PK study in the first half of 2019. We believe continued success with this program further validates the platform, confirms our technical abilities to build custom APs and paves the way for additional collaborative agreements.

 

Corporate Information

 

Our registered office and principal place of business is located at 12 Hartom Street, Har Hotzvim, Jerusalem 9777512, Israel and our telephone number in Israel is +972 (2) 586 4657. Our website address is http://www.intecpharma.com. The information contained on our website or available through our website does not constitute part of this prospectus. Our registered agent in the United States is Intec Pharma, Inc., whose address is 3 Columbus Circle – 15th Floor, New York, NY 10019 USA.

 

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THE OFFERING

 

Ordinary shares offered by us   Our ordinary shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $75 million.
     
Ordinary shares to be outstanding after this offering  

Up to 41,631,644 ordinary shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 8,398,656 ordinary shares in this offering at an offering price of $8.93 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Capital Market on February 27, 2019. The actual number of ordinary shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

     
Plan of Distribution  

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cowen. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-21.

     
Use of Proceeds  

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund our clinical trials, to advance our pre-commercial activities, for working capital and for general corporate purposes. Pending these uses, we may invest the net proceeds from the sale of securities in accordance with our investment policy, as may be amended from time to time, which currently includes bank deposits carrying interest, corporate debt obligations with a minimum of an A rating by global rating agencies and investments in United States Government Securities and Israeli Government Securities. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-7.

     
Risk Factors  

Investing in our ordinary shares involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” on page S-4, and under similar headings in other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

     
Nasdaq Capital Market symbol   “NTEC”

 

Unless otherwise indicated, the number of ordinary shares to be outstanding after this offering is based on 33,232,988 ordinary shares outstanding as of February 27, 2019 and excludes (i) 4,063,183 ordinary shares that we have reserved for issuance upon the exercise of outstanding options under our 2015 incentive plan, as of February 27, 2019, at a weighted average exercise price of $6.26 per ordinary share and that expire between 2024 and 2027, (ii) 295,452 ordinary shares that we have reserved for issuance upon the exercise of outstanding options under our 2005 incentive plan, as of February 27, 2019, at a weighted average exercise price of NIS 27.52 per ordinary share and that expire between 2019 and 2020, and (iii) 8,035 options issued outside of such plans, as of February 27, 2019, with an exercise price of NIS 0.50 per ordinary share and that expire in 2019.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our ordinary shares involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks described below and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, any amendment or update thereto reflected in our subsequent filings with the SEC, and all of the other information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. If any of these risks is realized, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our ordinary shares could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we think are immaterial may also materially harm our business, operating results and financial condition and could result in a complete loss of your investment.

 

Risks Related to this Offering

 

Purchasers in this offering will experience immediate and substantial dilution in the book value of their investment.

 

The ordinary shares sold in this offering from time to time will be sold at various prices; however, we expect the price per ordinary share will be substantially higher than the net tangible book value of our ordinary shares. Therefore, purchasers of our ordinary shares in this offering will experience immediate dilution in the net tangible book value of the ordinary shares purchased in this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 8,398,656 ordinary shares are sold at a public offering price of $8.93 per share, the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Capital Market on February 27, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of $75,000,000 and after deducting estimated commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2018, would have been approximately $125.9 million, or approximately $3.02 per ordinary. As a result, if you purchase ordinary shares in this offering at that assumed public offering price, you would suffer immediate and substantial dilution of $5.91 per share with respect to the net tangible book value of the ordinary shares. See “Dilution” in this prospectus supplement for a detailed illustration of the dilution you will incur if you purchase shares in this offering.

 

We will have broad discretion in how we use the net proceeds of this offering. We may not use these proceeds effectively, which could affect our results of operations and cause our stock price to decline.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund our clinical trials, to advance our pre-commercial activities, for working capital and for general corporate purposes. Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering, and we could spend the proceeds from this offering in ways with which you may not agree or that do not yield a favorable return. Accordingly, you will be relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of these net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. Our needs may change as the business and the industry that we address evolves. It is possible that the proceeds will be invested in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return. The failure of our management to use such funds effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.

 

If we raise additional capital in the future, your ownership in us could be diluted.

 

In order to raise additional capital, we may at any time, including during this offering, offer additional ordinary shares or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our ordinary shares at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing shareholders, including investors who purchase ordinary shares in this offering. The price per share at which we sell additional ordinary shares or securities convertible into ordinary shares in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share in this offering.

 

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial revenue from the sale of our products, we may finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings and license and development agreements. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the further sale of equity securities or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a shareholder.

 

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Sales of a substantial number of our ordinary shares in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.

 

We may issue and sell additional ordinary shares in the public markets, including during this offering. As a result, a substantial number of our ordinary shares may be sold in the public market. Sales of a substantial number of our ordinary shares in the public markets, including during this offering, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our ordinary shares and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.

 

Our shareholders may be diluted by the exercise of outstanding options to purchase ordinary shares

 

As of February 27, 2019, we have (i) 4,063,183 that we have reserved for issuance upon the exercise of outstanding options under our 2015 incentive plan, (ii) 295,452 ordinary shares that we have reserved for issuance upon the exercise of outstanding options under our 2005 incentive plan, and (iii) 8,035 options issued outside of such plans. We expect to issue additional equity awards to compensate employees, and may issue additional shares to raise capital, to pay for services, or for other corporate purposes. Any such issuances will have the effect of diluting the interests of current shareholders. The future issuance of any such additional ordinary shares may create downward pressure on the trading price of our ordinary shares.

 

The actual number of shares we will issue under the Sales Agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

 

Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to Cowen at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares that are sold by Cowen after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the ordinary shares during the sales period and limits we set with Cowen. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our ordinary shares during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will ultimately be issued.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus supplement, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, contains, and any prospectus supplement may contain statements that are forward-looking statements about our expectations, beliefs or intentions regarding, among other things, our product development efforts, business, financial condition, results of operations, strategies, plans and prospects. In addition, from time to time, we or our representatives have made or may make forward-looking statements, orally or in writing. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking words such as “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “may,” “should,” “anticipate,” “could,” “might,” “seek,” “target,” “will,” “project,” “forecast,” “continue” or their negatives or variations of these words or other comparable words or by the fact that these statements do not relate strictly to historical matters. These forward-looking statements may be included in, among other things, various filings made by us with the SEC, press releases or oral statements made by or with the approval of one of our authorized executive officers. Forward-looking statements relate to anticipated or expected events, activities, trends or results as of the date they are made. Because forward-looking statements relate to matters that have not yet occurred, these statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from any future results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Many factors could cause our actual activities or results to differ materially from the activities and results anticipated in forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to:

 

we are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company with a history of operating losses, are not currently profitable, do not expect to become profitable in the near future and may never become profitable;

 

our independent registered public accounting firm has expressed substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern;

 

because of our limited operating history, we may not be able to successfully operate our business or execute our business plan;

 

we face continuous technological change, and developments by competitors may render our products or technologies obsolete or non-competitive. If our new or existing product candidates are rendered obsolete or non-competitive, our marketing and sales will suffer and we may never be profitable;

 

we license our core technology on an exclusive basis from Yissum (Hebrew University), and we could lose our rights to this license if a dispute with Yissum arises or if we fail to comply with the financial and other terms of the license;

 

if we fail to adequately protect, enforce or secure rights to the patents which were licensed to us or any patents we may own in the future, the value of our intellectual property rights would diminish and our business and competitive position would suffer;

 

our product candidates are at various stages of preclinical and clinical development and may never be commercialized;

 

we cannot be certain that the results of our ACCORDANCE study or any future Phase III clinical trial, even if all endpoints are met, will support regulatory approval of any of our product candidates for any indication;

 

our product candidates are subject to extensive regulation and are at various stages of regulatory development and may never obtain regulatory approval;

 

we are subject to anti-kickback laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could have adverse consequences to us; and

 

potential political, economic and military instability in the State of Israel, where some of our senior management, our head executive office, research and development, and manufacturing facilities are located, may adversely affect our results of operations.

 

We believe these forward-looking statements are reasonable; however, these statements are only current predictions and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from those anticipated by the forward-looking statements. We discuss many of these risks in this prospectus in greater detail under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Given these uncertainties, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events.

 

All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf speak only as of the date hereof and are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements included in this prospectus. We undertake no obligations to update or revise forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that arise after the date made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. In evaluating forward-looking statements, you should consider these risks and uncertainties and not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of ordinary shares sold and the market price at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares under or fully utilize the Sales Agreement with Cowen.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered under this prospectus to fund our clinical trials, to advance our pre-commercial activities, for working capital and for general corporate purposes.

 

Although we have identified some potential uses of the net proceeds to be received upon completion of this offering, we cannot specify these uses with certainty. Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. Our shareholders may not agree with the manner in which our management chooses to allocate and spend the net proceeds. Moreover, our management may use the net proceeds for corporate purposes that may not result in our being profitable or increase our market value.

 

Pending these uses, we may invest the net proceeds from the sale of securities in accordance with our investment policy, as may be amended from time to time, which currently includes bank deposits carrying interest, corporate debt obligations with a minimum of an A rating by global rating agencies and investments in United States Government Securities and Israeli Government Securities.

 

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DILUTION

 

If you purchase our ordinary shares, your interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of our ordinary shares and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our ordinary shares after this offering.

 

The net tangible book value of our ordinary shares as of December 31, 2018 was approximately $53.6 million, or approximately $1.61 per share. Net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less total liabilities divided by the total number of our ordinary shares outstanding.

 

After giving effect to the sale of $75 million of ordinary shares in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $8.93 per share (the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Capital Market on February 27, 2019), and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2018 would have been approximately $125.9 million, or approximately $3.02 per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of approximately $1.41 per share to our existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $5.91 per share to investors participating in this offering, as illustrated by the following table:

 

Assumed offering price per share of ordinary shares             $8.93 
           
Net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2018  $1.61      
           
Increase in net tangible book value per share after this offering  $1.41      
           
As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2018, after giving effect to this offering       $3.02 
           
Dilution per share to investors participating in this offering       $5.91 

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 8,398,656 ordinary shares are sold at a price of $8.93 per share, the last reported sales price of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Capital Market on February 27, 2019, for aggregate proceeds of approximately $75 million. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.

 

The above discussion and table are based on 33,232,988 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2018, and excludes as of such date (i) 3,138,183 ordinary shares that we have reserved for issuance upon the exercise of outstanding options under our 2015 incentive plan, as of December 31, 2018, at a weighted average exercise price of $5.85 per share and that expire between 2024 and 2027, (ii) 295,452 ordinary shares that we have reserved for issuance upon the exercise of outstanding options under our 2005 incentive plan, as of December 31, 2018, at a weighted average exercise price of NIS 27.52 per ordinary share and that expire between 2019 and 2020, and (iii) 8,035 options issued outside of such plans, as of December 31, 2018, with an exercise price of NIS 0.5 per ordinary share and that expire in 2019.

 

To the extent that any of these outstanding options are exercised or we issue additional shares under our equity incentive plans, there will be further dilution to new investors. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital at any time, including during this offering, due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our shareholders.

 

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MATERIAL TAX CONSIDERATIONS

 

The following description is not intended to constitute a complete analysis of all tax consequences relating to the ownership or disposition of our ordinary shares. You should consult your own tax advisor concerning the tax consequences of your particular situation, as well as any tax consequences that may arise under the laws of any state, local, foreign, including Israel, or other taxing jurisdiction.

 

Certain Israeli Tax Considerations

 

The following is a brief summary of the material Israeli income tax laws applicable to us. This section also contains a discussion of material Israeli tax consequences concerning the ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares. This summary does not discuss all the aspects of Israeli tax law that may be relevant to a particular investor in light of his or her personal investment circumstances or to some types of investors subject to special treatment under Israeli law. Examples of this kind of investor include residents of Israel or investors in securities who are subject to special tax regimes not covered in this discussion. To the extent that the discussion is based on tax legislation that has not yet been subject to judicial or administrative interpretation, we cannot assure you that the appropriate tax authorities or the courts will accept the views expressed in this discussion. This summary is based on laws and regulations in effect as of the date hereof and does not take into account possible future amendments which may be under consideration. 

 

General Corporate Tax Structure in Israel

 

Israeli companies are generally subject to corporate tax on their taxable income at the rate of 23% for the 2018 tax year and thereafter. However, the effective tax rate payable by a company that derives income from an Approved Enterprise, a Benefited Enterprise, a Preferred Enterprise, Technology Enterprise or a Special Preferred Technology Enterprise (as discussed below) may be considerably less. Capital gains derived by an Israeli resident company are subject to tax at the prevailing corporate tax rate.

 

Law for the Encouragement of Industry (Taxes), 5729-1969

 

The Law for the Encouragement of Industry (Taxes), 5729-1969, or the Industry Encouragement Law, defines an “Industrial Company” as an Israeli resident company incorporated in Israel, of which 90% or more of its income in any tax year, other than income from certain government loans, is derived from an “Industrial Enterprise” owned by it and located in Israel or in the “Area”, in accordance with the definition in section 3a of the Israeli Income Tax Ordinance (New Version) 1961, or the Ordinance. An “Industrial Enterprise” is defined as an enterprise which is held by an Industrial Company whose principal activity in any given tax year is industrial production.

 

The following tax benefits, among others, are available to Industrial Companies:

 

amortization over an eight-year period of the cost of patents and rights to use a patent and know-how that were purchased in good faith and are used for the development or advancement of the Industrial Enterprise, commencing from the tax year where the Industrial Enterprise began to use them;

 

  under certain conditions, the right to elect to file consolidated tax returns with Israeli Industrial Companies controlled by it; and

 

  expenses related to a public offering are deductible in equal amounts over three years commencing on the year of the offering.

 

We believe that we qualify as an “Industrial Company” within the meaning of the Industry Encouragement Law. There can be no assurance that we will continue to qualify as an Industrial Company or that the benefits described above will be available to us in the future.

 

Tax Benefits under the Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 5719-1959

 

Tax benefits prior to the 2005 Amendment

 

The Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 5719-1959, or the Investment Law, provides that a capital investment in eligible facilities may, upon application to the Israeli Authority for Investments and Development of the Ministry of Economy and Industry of the State of Israel, or the Investment Center, be granted the status of an Approved Enterprise. Each certificate of approval for an Approved Enterprise relates to a specific investment program delineated both by its financial scope, including sources of funds, and by its physical characteristics of the facility or other assets, e.g., the equipment to be purchased and utilized pursuant to the program.

 

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The tax benefits under the Investment Law also apply to income generated by a company from the grant of a usage right with respect to know-how developed pursuant to the Approved Enterprise, income generated from royalties, and income derived from a service which is auxiliary to such usage right or royalties, provided that such income is generated within the ordinary course of business of the company investing in the Approved Enterprise.

 

If a company has more than one approval or only a portion of its capital investments is approved, its effective tax rate is the result of a weighted average of the applicable rates. The tax benefits under the Investment Law are not, generally, available with respect to income derived from products manufactured outside of Israel. In addition, the tax benefits available to a company investing in an Approved Enterprise are contingent upon the fulfillment of conditions stipulated in the Investment Law and related regulations and the criteria set forth in the specific certificate of approval, as described above. In the event that a company does not meet these conditions, it would be required to refund the amount of tax benefits, plus a consumer price index linked adjustment and interest, or other monetary penalty.

   

A company that has an Approved Enterprise program and which qualifies as a foreign investment company, or a FIC, will be eligible for a three-year extension of tax benefits following the expiration of the seven-year period referenced above. In addition, in the event that the level of foreign ownership in an Approved Enterprise reaches 49% or higher, the corporate tax rate applicable to income earned from the Approved Enterprise is reduced as follows:

 

% of Foreign Ownership  Tax Rate 
49% or more but less than 74%   20%
74% or more but less than 90%   15%
90% or more   10%

 

Additionally, a company may elect to forgo its entitlements to grants and tax benefits under the grant track and apply for alternative package of tax benefits, or the Alternative Track, for a benefit period of between seven and ten years . Under the Alternative Track, a company’s undistributed income derived from the Approved Enterprise will be exempt from corporate tax for a period of between two and ten years, starting from the first year the company derives taxable income under the Approved Enterprise program. The length of time of this exemption will depend on the geographic location of the Approved Enterprise within Israel. After the exemption period lapses, the company is subject to tax at a corporate tax rate of between 10% to 23% depending on the level of foreign investment in the company in each year, as detailed above, for the remainder of the benefit period.

 

A company that has elected the Alternative Track and subsequently pays a dividend out of income derived from the Approved Enterprise during the tax exemption period will be subject to corporate tax on the amount which is determined by the distributed amount (grossed up to reflect such pre-tax income that it would have had to earn in order to distribute the dividend) with the effective corporate tax rate which would have been applied had the company not elected the Alternative Track, which is between 10%-23%, depending on the level of foreign investment in the company in each year as explained above. Dividends paid out of any income derived from an Approved Enterprise are generally subject to withholding tax at source at the reduced rate of 15% or at a lower rate provided under an applicable tax treaty (subject to the receipt in advance of a valid certificate from the Israel Tax Authority allowing for a reduced tax rate), if the dividend is distributed during the tax exemption period or within 12 years thereafter. In the event, however, where the company qualifies as a FIC, there is no such time limitation.

 

Under the Investment Law, a company that has elected the Alternative Track is not obliged to distribute retained profits, and may generally decide from which year’s profits to declare dividends.

 

The Company is not entitled to an Approved Enterprise status.

 

Tax benefits under the 2005 Amendment

 

An amendment to the Investment Law, which became effective as of April 1, 2005, or the 2005 Amendment, changed certain provisions of the Investment Law. An eligible investment program under the 2005 Amendment qualifies for benefits as a “Benefited Enterprise” (rather than as an Approved Enterprise which status is still applicable for investment programs approved prior to December 31, 2004 and/or investment programs under the grant track). According to the 2005 Amendment, to qualify a Benefited Enterprise, only companies with Approved Enterprises receiving cash grants require the prior approval of the Investment Center. Further, a company may claim the tax benefits offered by the Investment Law directly in its tax returns, provided that its facilities meet the criteria for tax benefits set forth in the 2005 Amendment. A company that has a Benefited Enterprise may, at its discretion, approach the Israel Tax Authority for a pre-ruling confirming that it meets the criteria with the provisions of the Investment Law.

 

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The duration of the tax benefits under the 2005 Amendment is limited to the earlier of seven or ten years (depending on the geographic location of the Benefited Enterprise within Israel) from the Commencement Year (as described below) or 12 years from the first day of the year of election. Commencement Year is defined as the later of the first tax year in which a company had derived liable income for tax purposes from the Benefited Enterprise, or the year of election which is the year in which a company requested to have the tax benefits apply to the Benefited Enterprise. The tax benefits granted to a Benefited Enterprise are determined, depending on the geographic location of the Benefited Enterprise within Israel, according to one of the following, which may be applicable to us:

 

(i) Similar to the Alternative Track, exemption from corporate tax may be available on undistributed income for a period of two to ten years, depending on the geographic location of the Benefited Enterprise within Israel, and a corporate tax rate of 10% to 23% for the remainder of the benefit period, depending on the level of foreign investment in each year. Benefits may be granted for a term of seven to ten years, depending on the level of foreign investment in the company. If the company pays a dividend out of income derived from the Benefited Enterprise during the tax exemption period, such income will be subject to deferred corporate tax with respect to the amount distributed (grossed up to reflect such pre-tax income that it would have had to earn in order to distribute the dividend) at the corporate tax rate which would have otherwise been applied. The company is required to withhold tax on such distribution at a rate of 15%, or such lower rate may be provided in an applicable tax treaty (subject to the receipt in advance of a valid certificate from the Israel Tax Authority allowing for a reduced tax rate); or

 

(ii) A special track, or the Ireland Track, which enables companies owning facilities in certain geographical locations in Israel to pay corporate tax at a flat rate of 11.5% on income derived from the Benefited Enterprise. The benefit period is for ten years. Upon payment of dividends, the company is required to withhold tax on such dividend at a rate of 15% for Israeli residents and at a rate of 4% for foreign residents.

 

Under the Investment Law, we may be entitled to tax benefits, by virtue of our status as a “Benefited Enterprise,” which was awarded to us in October 2007. As of December 31, 2018, we had not yet generated operating income that will allow us to benefit from the tax benefits under the Investment Law. The tax benefits under the Investment Law may apply for a period of up to ten years from the first year in which taxable income will be generated. Our tax benefits period is scheduled to expire at the end of 2023.

 

In order to remain eligible for the tax benefits of a Benefited Enterprise, we must continue to meet certain conditions stipulated in the Investment Law and its regulations, as amended. In addition, in order to remain eligible for the tax benefits available to the Benefited Enterprise, we must also comply with the conditions set forth in a tax ruling we received from the Israeli Tax Authority. These conditions include, among other things, that the production, directly or through subcontractors, of all our products should be performed within certain regions of Israel. If we do not meet these requirements, the tax benefits would be reduced or canceled.

 

Tax benefits under the 2011 Amendment

 

On December 29, 2010, the Israeli Parliament approved the 2011 Amendment to the Investment Law, or the 2011 Amendment. The 2011 Amendment significantly revised the tax incentive regime in Israel and commenced on January 1, 2011.

 

The 2011 Amendment introduced a new status of “Preferred Enterprise”, replacing the existing status of “Benefited Enterprise” and introduced new benefits for income generated by a “Preferred Company” through its Preferred Enterprise. A Preferred Company is an Industrial Company meeting certain conditions (including a minimum threshold of 25% export). However, under the 2011 Amendment, the requirement for a minimum investment in productive assets in order to be eligible for the benefits granted under the Investment Law as with respect to “Benefited Enterprise” was cancelled.

 

A Preferred Company is entitled to a reduced flat tax rate with respect to the income attributed to the Preferred Enterprise at the following rates:

 

Tax Year  Development Region “A”   Other Areas within Israel 
2011-2012   10%   15%
2013   7%   12.5%
2014-2016   9%   16%
2017 onwards   7.5%   16%

 

The classification of income generated from the provision of usage rights in know-how or software that were developed in the Preferred Enterprise, as well as royalty income received with respect to such usage, as Preferred Enterprise income is subject to the issuance of a pre-ruling from the Israeli Tax Authority stipulating that such income is associated with the productive activity of the Preferred Enterprise in Israel.

 

In addition, the 2011 Amendment introduced a new status of “Special Preferred Company,” which is an Industrial Company meeting, in addition to the conditions prescribed for a “Preferred Company,” certain additional conditions (including that the annual Preferred Enterprise income is at least NIS 1.5 billion in 2016, and NIS 1 billion in 2017 and thereafter). The tax rate applicable for a period of ten years to income generated by such an enterprise will be reduced to 5%, if located in Development Region “A”, or to 8%, if located in other area within the State of Israel. As of January 1, 2017, the definition for ‘Special Preferred Enterprise’ includes less stringent conditions.

 

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Dividends distributed from income which is attributed to a “Preferred Enterprise” or a “Special Preferred Enterprise” will be subject to withholding tax at source at the following rates: (i) Israeli resident corporations – 0%, (although, if such dividends are subsequently distributed to individuals or a non-Israeli company, withholding tax at a rate of 20% or such lower rate as may be provided in an applicable tax treaty will apply (subject to the receipt in advance of a valid certificate from the Israel Tax Authority allowing for a reduced tax rate)) (ii) Israeli resident individuals – 20%, and (iii) non-Israeli residents - 20%, subject to a reduced tax rate under the provisions of an applicable tax treaty (subject to the receipt in advance of a valid certificate from the Israel Tax Authority allowing for a reduced tax rate). In 2017-2019, dividends paid out of preferred income attributed to a “Special Preferred Enterprise”, directly to a foreign parent company, are subject to withholding tax at source at the rate of 5% (temporary provisions).

 

The 2011 Amendment also revised the grant track to apply only to the approved programs located in Development Region “A” and provides not only cash grants (as prior to the 2011 Amendment) but also the granting of loans. In addition, a company owning a Preferred Enterprise under the grant track may be entitled also to the tax benefits which are prescribed for a Preferred Enterprise.

 

The provisions of the 2011 Amendment do not apply to existing “Benefited Enterprises” or “Approved Enterprises,” which will continue to be entitled to the tax benefits under the Investment Law, as in effect prior to the 2011 Amendment, unless the company owning such enterprises had made an election to apply the provisions of the 2011 Amendment (such election cannot be later rescinded), which is to be filed with the Israeli Tax Authority, not later than the date prescribed for the filing of the company’s annual tax return for the respective year.

 

We have examined the possible effect, if any, of the provisions of the 2011 Amendment on our consolidated financial statements and have decided, at this time, not to apply for the new benefits under the 2011 Amendment.

 

Tax benefits under the 2017 Amendment

 

The 2017 Amendment to the Investment Law, or the 2017 Amendment, was enacted as part of the Economic Efficiency Law that was published on December 29, 2016, and is effective as of January 1, 2017. The 2017 Amendment provides new tax benefits for two types of “Technology Enterprises,” as described below, and is in addition to the other existing tax benefit programs under the Investment Law.

 

The 2017 Amendment provides that a technology company satisfying certain conditions may qualify as a “Preferred Technology Enterprise” and thereby enjoy a reduced corporate tax rate of 12% on income that qualifies as “Preferred Technology Income,” as defined in the Investment Law. The tax rate is further reduced to 7.5% for a Preferred Technology Enterprise located in Development Region “A.” In addition, a Preferred Technology Company will enjoy a reduced corporate tax rate of 12% on capital gain derived from the sale of certain “Benefitted Intangible Assets” (as defined in the Investment Law) to a related foreign company if the Benefitted Intangible Assets were acquired from a foreign company on or after January 1, 2017 for at least NIS 200 million, and the sale receives prior approval from the IIA. 

 

The 2017 Amendment further provides that a technology company satisfying certain conditions may qualify as a “Special Preferred Technology Enterprise” and thereby enjoy a reduced corporate tax rate of 6% on “Preferred Technology Income” regardless of the company’s geographic location within Israel. In addition, a Special Preferred Technology Enterprise will enjoy a reduced corporate tax rate of 6% on capital gain derived from the sale of certain “Benefitted Intangible Assets” to a related foreign company if the Benefitted Intangible Assets were either developed by an Israeli company or acquired from a foreign company on or after January 1, 2017, and the sale received prior approval from the IIA. A Special Preferred Technology Enterprise that acquires Benefitted Intangible Assets from a foreign company for more than NIS 500 million will be eligible for these benefits for at least ten years, subject to certain approvals as specified in the Investment Law.

 

Dividends distributed by a Preferred Technology Enterprise or a Special Preferred Technology Enterprise, paid out of Preferred Technology Income, are generally subject to withholding tax at source at the rate of 20% or such lower rate as may be provided in an applicable tax treaty (subject to the receipt in advance of a valid certificate from the Israel Tax Authority allowing for a reduced tax rate). However, if such dividends are paid to an Israeli company, no tax is required to be withheld. If such dividends are distributed to a foreign company and other conditions are met, the withholding tax rate will be 4% (or a lower rate under a tax treaty, if applicable, subject to the receipt in advance of a valid certificate from the Israel Tax Authority allowing for a reduced tax rate).

 

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Taxation of the Company Shareholders

 

Capital Gains

 

Capital gain tax is imposed on the disposal of capital assets by an Israeli resident, and on the disposal of such assets by a non-Israel resident if those assets are (i) located in Israel, (ii) are shares or a right to a share in an Israeli resident corporation, or (iii) represent, directly or indirectly, rights to assets located in Israel, unless a tax treaty between Israel and the seller’s country of residence provides otherwise. The Ordinance distinguishes between “Real Capital Gain” and the “Inflationary Surplus.” Real Capital Gain is the excess of the total capital gain over Inflationary Surplus computed generally on the basis of the increase in the Israeli consumer price index between the date of purchase and the date of disposal. Inflationary Surplus is not currently subject to tax in Israel.

 

The Real Capital Gain accrued by Israeli individual residents on the sale of our ordinary shares (that were purchased after January 1, 2012, whether listed on a stock exchange or not) will be taxed at the rate of 25%. However, if such shareholder is a “Controlling Shareholder” (i.e., a person who holds, directly or indirectly, alone or together with such person’s relative or another person, 10% or more of one of the Israeli resident company’s means of control (including, among other things, the right to receive profits of the company, voting rights, the right to receive the company’s liquidation proceeds and the right to appoint a director)) at the time of sale or at any time during the preceding 12 month period and/or claims a deduction for interest and linkage differences expenses in connection with the purchase and holding of such shares, such capital gain will be taxed at the rate of 30%.

 

The Real Capital Gain derived by Israeli corporation residents will be generally subject to the ordinary corporate tax (23% in 2019 and thereafter).

 

Israeli individual resident shareholders dealing in securities, or to whom such income is otherwise taxable as ordinary business income are taxed in Israel at their marginal rates applicable to business income (up to 50% in 2019, including, Excess Tax, if any, as described below).

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, Real Capital Gain derived from the sale of our ordinary shares by a non-Israeli resident (whether an individual or a corporation) shareholder may be exempt under the Ordinance from Israeli capital gains provided that such shareholder did not acquire their shares prior to January 1, 2009 or acquired their shares after the Company was listed for trading on Nasdaq or another recognized exchange and such gains were not derived from a permanent establishment of such shareholder in Israel. These provisions dealing with capital gain are not applicable to a person whose gains from selling or otherwise disposing of the shares are deemed to be business income. However, non-Israeli corporations will not be entitled to the foregoing exemptions if an Israeli resident (i) holds more than 25% of the means of control in such non-Israeli corporation or (ii) is the beneficiary of or is entitled to 25% or more of the revenues or profits of such non-Israeli corporation, in each case, whether directly or indirectly.

  

In addition, the sale of shares may be exempt from Israeli capital gain tax under the provisions of an applicable tax treaty (subject to the receipt in advance of a valid certificate from the Israel Tax Authority allowing for an exemption).

 

For example, the Convention between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Israel with respect to Taxes on Income, as amended, or the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, exempts U.S. residents (for the purposes of the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty) from Israeli capital gain tax in connection with a sale, unless (i) the U.S. resident owned, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the Israeli resident company’s voting power at any time within the 12 month period preceding such sale, subject to certain conditions; (ii) the seller, being an individual, is present in Israel for a period or periods of 183 days or more in the aggregate during the relevant taxable year; and (iii) the capital gain from the sale, exchange or disposition was derived through a permanent establishment that the U.S. resident maintains in Israel; (iv) the capital gains arising from such sale, exchange or disposition is attributed to real estate located in Israel; or (v) the capital gains arising from such sale, exchange or disposition is attributed to royalties. In any such case, the sale, exchange or disposition of our ordinary shares would be subject to Israeli tax, to the extent applicable. However, under the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, such U.S. resident would be permitted to claim a credit for such taxes against U.S. federal income tax imposed on any gain from such sale, exchange or disposition, under the circumstances and subject to the limitations specified in the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty.

 

In some instances where our shareholders may be liable for Israeli tax on the sale of their ordinary shares, the payment of the consideration may be subject to withholding of Israeli tax at source, as detailed above. Shareholders may be required to demonstrate that they are exempt from tax on their capital gains in order to avoid withholding at source at the time of sale. For example, in transactions involving a sale of all of the shares of an Israeli resident company, in the form of a merger or otherwise, the Israel Tax Authority may require from shareholders who are not liable for Israeli tax to sign declarations in forms specified by this authority or obtain a specific exemption from the Israel Tax Authority to confirm their status as non-Israeli resident, and, in the absence of such declarations or exemptions, may require the purchaser of the shares to withhold taxes at source.

 

Either the purchaser, the Israeli stockbrokers or financial institution through which the shares are held is obliged, subject to the above mentioned exemptions, to withhold tax upon the sale of securities on the amount of the consideration paid upon the sale of the securities (or on the Real Capital Gain realized on the sale, if known), at the rate of 25% in respect of an individual, at the rate of 30% in respect of a “Controlling Shareholder” (as defined above), or at a rate of corporate tax, in respect of a corporation (23% in 2019 and thereafter).

 

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Upon the sale of securities traded on a stock exchange, a detailed return, including a computation of the tax due, must be filed and an advanced payment must be paid on January 31 and July 31 of every tax year in respect of sales of securities made within the previous six months. However, if all tax due was withheld at source according to applicable provisions of the Ordinance and regulations promulgated thereunder, the aforementioned return need not be filed and no advance payment must be paid. Capital gain is also reportable on the annual income tax returns.

 

Dividends

 

A distribution of dividends from income to an Israeli resident individual, which is not attributed to an Approved Enterprise/Benefited Enterprise/Preferred Enterprise, will generally be subject to income tax at a rate of 25%. However, a 30% tax rate will apply if the dividend recipient is a “Controlling Shareholder” (as defined above) at the time of distribution or at any time during the preceding 12 month period. If the recipient of the dividend is an Israeli resident corporation, such dividend will generally be exempt from tax provided the income from which such dividend is distributed was derived or accrued within Israel.

 

Distribution of dividends from income attributed to a Preferred Enterprise is generally subject to a tax at a rate of 20%. However, if such dividends are distributed to an Israeli resident company, and are subsequently distributed to individuals or a non-Israeli company, withholding tax at a rate of 20% or such lower rate as may be provided in an applicable tax treaty will apply. Dividends distributed from income attributed to an Approved Enterprise and/or a Benefited Enterprise are subject to a tax rate of 15%. If the dividend is attributable partly to income derived from an Approved Enterprise, Benefited Enterprise or Preferred Enterprise, and partly from other sources of income, the income tax rate will be a blended rate reflecting the relative portions of the types of income. 

 

The Ordinance generally provides that a non-Israeli resident (either individual or corporation) is subject to an Israeli tax on the receipt of dividends at the rate of 25% (30% if the dividends recipient is a “Controlling Shareholder” (as defined above), at the time of distribution or at any time during the preceding 12 month period); those rates are subject to a reduced tax rate or an exemption from tax under the provisions of an applicable tax treaty.

 

For example, under the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, the following rates will apply in respect of dividends distributed by an Israeli resident company to a U.S. resident (for purposes of the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty): (i) with regard to a dividend distributed from income which is not attributed to an Approved Enterprise/Benefited Enterprise/Preferred Enterprise, if the U.S. resident is a corporation which holds during that portion of the taxable year which precedes the date of payment of the dividend and during the whole of its prior taxable year (if any), at least 10% of the outstanding shares of the voting stock of the Israeli resident paying corporation and not more than 25% of the gross income of the Israeli resident paying corporation for such prior taxable year (if any) consists of certain type of interest or dividends – the maximum tax rate of withholding is 12.5% if a certificate for a reduced withholding tax rate would be provided in advance from the Israeli Tax Authority, (ii) with regard to a dividend distributed from income derived from an Approved Enterprise/Benefited Enterprise under the Investment Law, if the U.S. resident is a corporation which holds during that portion of the taxable year which precedes the date of payment of the dividend and during the whole of its prior taxable year (if any), at least 10% of the outstanding shares of the voting stock of the Israeli resident paying corporation and not more than 25% of the gross income of the Israeli resident paying corporation for such prior taxable year (if any) consists of certain type of interest or dividends, the tax rate of withholding 15% will be applicable if a certificate for a reduced withholding tax rate would be provided in advance from the Israeli Tax Authority, and (iii) in all other cases, the tax rate is 25%. The aforementioned rates under the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty will not apply if the dividend income was derived through a permanent establishment that the U.S. resident maintains in Israel.

 

A non-Israeli resident who receives dividend income derived from or accrued from Israel, from which the full amount of tax was withheld at source, is generally exempt from the obligation to file tax returns in Israel with respect to such income, provided that (i) such income was not generated from business conducted in Israel by the taxpayer, (ii) the taxpayer has no other taxable sources of income in Israel with respect to which a tax return is required to be filed and (iii) the taxpayer is not obliged to pay Excess Tax (as described below).

 

Payors of dividends on our shares, including the Israeli stockbroker effectuating the transaction, or the financial institution through which the securities are held, are required, subject to any of the foregoing exemptions, reduced tax rates and the demonstration of a shareholder of his, her or its foreign residency, to withhold taxes upon the distribution of dividends at a rate of 25%, provided that the shares are registered with a nominee company (for corporations and individuals).

 

Excess Tax

 

Individuals who are subject to tax in Israel (whether such individual is an Israeli resident or non-Israeli resident) are also subject to an additional tax, at a rate of 3%, on annual income exceeding a certain threshold (NIS 649,560 for 2019), which amount is linked to the annual change in the Israeli consumer price index, including, but not limited to income derived from dividends, interest and capital gains.

 

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Foreign Exchange Regulations

 

Non-residents of Israel who hold our ordinary shares are able to receive any dividends, and any amounts payable upon the dissolution, liquidation and winding up of our affairs, repayable in non-Israeli currency at the rate of exchange prevailing at the time of conversion. However, Israeli income tax is generally required to have been paid or withheld on these amounts. In addition, the statutory framework for the potential imposition of currency exchange control has not been eliminated, and may be restored at any time by administrative action.

  

Estate and Gift Tax

 

Israeli law presently does not impose estate or gift taxes.

 

Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

 

The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares by U.S. Holders (as defined below). This summary is based on the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, the regulations of the U.S. Department of the Treasury issued pursuant to the Code, or the Treasury Regulations, the income tax treaty between the United States and Israel, or the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof, all as in effect on the date hereof and all of which are subject to change, possibly with retroactive effect, or to different interpretation. No ruling has been sought from the IRS with respect to any U.S. federal income tax consequences described below, and there can be no assurance that the IRS or a court will not take a contrary position. This summary is no substitute for consultation by prospective investors with their own tax advisors and does not constitute tax advice. This summary applies only to U.S. Holders that hold our ordinary shares as capital assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes (generally, property held for investment) and does not address all of the tax considerations that may be relevant to specific U.S. Holders in light of their particular circumstances or to U.S. Holders subject to special treatment under U.S. federal income tax law (including, without limitation, banks, insurance companies, tax-exempt entities, retirement plans, regulated investment companies, partnerships, dealers in securities, brokers, real estate investment trusts, certain former citizens or residents of the United States, persons who acquire our ordinary shares as part of a straddle, hedge, conversion transaction or other integrated investment, persons who acquire our ordinary shares through the exercise or cancellation of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation for their services, persons that have a “functional currency” other than the U.S. dollar, persons that own (or are deemed to own, indirectly, or by attribution) 10% or more of our shares (by vote or value), or persons that mark their securities to market for U.S. federal income tax purposes). This summary does not address any U.S. state or local or non-U.S. tax considerations, any U.S. federal estate, gift or alternative minimum tax considerations, or any U.S. federal tax consequences other than U.S. federal income tax consequences.

 

As used in this summary, the term “U.S. Holder” means a beneficial owner of our ordinary shares that is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, (i) an individual citizen or resident of the United States, (ii) a corporation, or other entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia, (iii) an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source, or (iv) a trust with respect to which a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over its administration and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all of its substantial decisions, or that has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a “United States person.”

 

If an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our ordinary shares, the tax treatment of such entity or arrangement treated as a partnership and each person treated as a partner thereof generally will depend upon the status and activities of the entity and such person. A holder that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes should consult its own tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to it and its partners of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares.

 

Prospective investors should be aware that this summary does not address the tax consequences to investors who are not U.S. Holders. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors as to the particular tax considerations applicable to them relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares, including the applicability of U.S. federal, state and local tax laws and non-U.S. tax laws. 

 

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Taxation of U.S. Holders

 

Distributions. Subject to the discussion below under “Passive Foreign Investment Company,” a U.S. Holder that receives a distribution with respect to an ordinary share generally will be required to include the amount of such distribution in gross income as a dividend (without reduction for any Israeli tax withheld from such distribution) when actually or constructively received to the extent of the U.S. Holder’s pro rata share of our current and/or accumulated earnings and profits (as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles). Any distributions in excess of our earnings and profits will be applied against and will reduce (but not below zero) the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in its ordinary shares, and, to the extent they exceed that tax basis, will be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of our ordinary shares. We do not intend to calculate our earnings and profits under U.S. federal income tax principles. Therefore, a U.S. Holder should expect that a distribution will be treated as a dividend even if that distribution would otherwise be treated as a non-taxable return of capital or as capital gain under the rules described above.

 

As noted above, we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. If we were to pay dividends, we expect to pay such dividends in NIS. A dividend paid in NIS, including the amount of any Israeli taxes withheld, will be includible in a U.S. Holder’s income at a U.S. dollar amount calculated by reference to the exchange rate in effect on the date such dividend is received, regardless of whether the payment is in fact converted into U.S. dollars. If the dividend is converted to U.S. dollars on the date of receipt, a U.S. Holder generally will not recognize a foreign currency gain or loss. However, if the U.S. Holder converts the NIS into U.S. dollars on a later date, the U.S. Holder must include, in computing its income, any gain or loss resulting from any exchange rate fluctuations. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between (i) the U.S. dollar value of the amount included in income when the dividend was received and (ii) the amount received on the conversion of the NIS into U.S. dollars. Such gain or loss generally will be ordinary income or loss and will be U.S. source income or loss for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes. U.S. Holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the tax consequences to them if we pay dividends in NIS or any other non-U.S. currency.

 

Subject to certain significant conditions and limitations, any Israeli taxes paid on or withheld from distributions from us and not refundable to a U.S. Holder may be credited against the U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability or, alternatively, may be deducted from the U.S. Holder’s taxable income. The election to deduct, rather than credit, foreign taxes, is made on a year-by-year basis and applies to all foreign taxes paid by a U.S. Holder or withheld from a U.S. Holder that year. Dividends paid on the ordinary shares generally will constitute income from sources outside the United States and be categorized as “passive category income” or, in the case of some U.S. Holders, as “general category income” for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes. Because the rules governing foreign tax credits are complex, U.S. Holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the availability of foreign tax credits in their particular circumstances.

 

Dividends paid on the ordinary shares will not be eligible for the “dividends-received” deduction generally allowed to corporate U.S. Holders with respect to dividends received from U.S. corporations.

 

Certain distributions treated as dividends that are received by an individual U.S. Holder from a “qualified foreign corporation” generally qualify for a 20% reduced maximum tax rate so long as certain holding period and other requirements are met. A non-U.S. corporation (other than a “passive foreign investment company,” or “PFIC”, for the taxable year in which the dividend is paid or the preceding taxable year) generally will be considered to be a qualified foreign corporation (i) if it is eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive tax treaty with the United States which the Secretary of Treasury of the United States determines is satisfactory for purposes of this provision and which includes an exchange of information program, or (ii) with respect to any dividend it pays on stock which is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States. Dividends paid by us in a taxable year in which we are not a PFIC and with respect to which we were not a PFIC in the preceding taxable year are expected to be eligible for the 20% reduced maximum tax rate, although we can offer no assurances in this regard. However, any dividend paid by us in a taxable year in which we are a PFIC or were a PFIC in the preceding taxable year will be subject to tax at regular ordinary income rates (along with any applicable additional PFIC tax liability, as discussed below). As discussed below under “Passive Foreign Investment Company,” we believe that we were a PFIC for our 2018 taxable year and expect to be a PFIC for the 2019 taxable year. Because PFIC status is determined annually and is based on our income, assets and activities for the entire taxable year, it is not possible to determine with certainty whether we will be characterized as a PFIC for the 2019 taxable year until after the close of the year, and there can be no assurance that we will not be classified as a PFIC in any future year.

 

The additional 3.8% “net investment income tax” (discussed below under “Medicare Tax on Investment Income”) may apply to dividends received by certain U.S. Holders who meet certain modified adjusted gross income thresholds. 

 

Sale, Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition of Ordinary Shares. Subject to the discussion under “Passive Foreign Investment Company” below, a U.S. Holder generally will recognize capital gain or loss upon the sale, exchange, or other taxable disposition of our ordinary shares in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized on the sale, exchange, or other taxable disposition and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis (determined under U.S. federal income tax rules) in such ordinary shares. This capital gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder’s holding period in our ordinary shares exceeds one year. Preferential tax rates for long-term capital gain (currently, with a maximum rate of 20%) will apply to individual U.S. Holders. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations. The gain or loss generally will be income or loss from sources within the United States for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes, subject to certain possible exceptions under the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty. The additional 3.8% “net investment income tax” (discussed below under “Medicare Tax on Investment Income”) may apply to gains recognized upon the sale, exchange, or other taxable disposition of our ordinary shares by certain U.S. Holders who meet certain modified adjusted gross income thresholds.

 

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U.S. Holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of receiving currency other than U.S. dollars upon the disposition of our ordinary shares.

 

Passive Foreign Investment Company. In general, a non-U.S. corporation will be treated as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes in any taxable year in which either (i) at least 75% of its gross income is “passive income,” or (ii) on average at least 50% of its assets by value produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income. Passive income for this purpose generally includes, among other things, certain dividends, interest, royalties, rents and gains from commodities and securities transactions and from the sale or exchange of property that gives rise to passive income. Passive income also includes amounts derived by reason of the temporary investment of funds, including those raised in a public offering. Assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income include cash, even if held as working capital or raised in a public offering, marketable securities and other assets that may produce passive income. In determining whether a non-U.S. corporation is a PFIC, a proportionate share of the income and assets of each corporation in which it owns, directly or indirectly, at least a 25% interest (by value) is taken into account.

 

A foreign corporation’s PFIC status is an annual determination that is based on tests that are factual in nature, and our status for any year will depend on our income, assets, and activities for such year. Based upon our review of our financial data, we believe that we were a PFIC for our 2018 taxable year and expect to be a PFIC for the 2019 taxable year. Because PFIC status is determined annually and is based on our income, assets and activities for the entire taxable year, it is not possible to determine with certainty whether we will be characterized as a PFIC for the 2019 taxable year until after the close of the year, and there can be no assurance that we will not be classified as a PFIC in any future year.

 

Default PFIC Rules. If we are a PFIC for any tax year, a U.S. Holder who does not make a timely “qualified electing fund” election, or “QEF election” (as discussed below), or a mark-to-market election (as described below), referred to in this summary as a “Non-Electing U.S. Holder,” will be subject to special rules with respect to (i) any “excess distribution” (generally, the portion of any distributions received by the Non-Electing U.S. Holder on the ordinary shares in a taxable year in excess of 125% of the average annual distributions received by the Non-Electing U.S. Holder in the three preceding taxable years, or, if shorter, the Non-Electing U.S. Holder’s holding period for the ordinary shares), and (ii) any gain realized on the sale or other disposition of such ordinary shares. Under these rules:

 

the excess distribution or gain would be allocated ratably over the Non-Electing U.S. Holder’s holding period for such ordinary shares;

 

  the amount allocated to the current taxable year and any year prior to us becoming a PFIC would be taxed as ordinary income; and

 

  the amount allocated to each of the other taxable years would be subject to tax at the highest rate of tax in effect for the applicable class of taxpayer for that year, and an interest charge for the deemed deferral benefit would be imposed with respect to the resulting tax attributable to each such other taxable year.

 

If a Non-Electing U.S. Holder who is an individual dies while owning our ordinary shares, the Non-Electing U.S. Holder’s successor would be ineligible to receive a step-up in tax basis of such ordinary shares. Non-Electing U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of the “net investment income tax” (discussed below under “Medicare Tax on Investment Income”) to their specific situation.

 

To the extent a distribution on our ordinary shares does not constitute an excess distribution to a Non-Electing U.S. Holder, such Non-Electing U.S. Holder generally will be required to include the amount of such distribution in gross income as a dividend to the extent of our current and/or accumulated earnings and profits (as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) that are not allocated to excess distributions. The tax consequences of such distributions are discussed above under “Taxation of U.S. Holders—Distributions.” Each U.S. Holder is encouraged to consult its own tax advisor with respect to the appropriate U.S. federal income tax treatment of any distribution on our ordinary shares. 

 

If we are treated as a PFIC for any taxable year during the holding period of a Non-Electing U.S. Holder, we will continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which the Non-Electing U.S. Holder is treated as a direct or indirect Non-Electing U.S. Holder even if we are not a PFIC in any such year. A U.S. Holder is encouraged to consult its tax advisor with respect to any available elections that may be applicable in such a situation, including the “deemed sale” election of Code Section 1298(b)(1) (which will be taxed under the adverse tax rules described above).

 

We may invest in the equity of foreign corporations that are PFICs or may own subsidiaries that own PFICs. If we are classified as a PFIC, under attribution rules, U.S. Holders will be subject to the PFIC rules with respect to their indirect ownership interests in such PFICs, such that a disposition of the ordinary shares of the PFIC or receipt by us of a distribution from the PFIC generally will be treated as a deemed disposition of such ordinary shares or the deemed receipt of such distribution by the U.S. Holder, subject to taxation under the PFIC rules. There can be no assurance that a U.S. Holder will be able to make a QEF election or a mark-to-market election with respect to PFICs in which we invest. Each U.S. Holder is encouraged to consult its own tax advisor with respect to tax consequences of an investment by us in a corporation that is a PFIC.

 

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QEF Election. Certain of the adverse consequences of PFIC status can be mitigated if a U.S. Holder makes a QEF election. A U.S. Holder who makes a timely QEF election, referred to in this disclosure as an “Electing U.S. Holder,” with respect to us must report for U.S. federal income tax purposes his pro rata share of our ordinary earnings and net capital gain, if any, for our taxable year that ends with or within the taxable year of the Electing U.S. Holder. The “net capital gain” of a PFIC is the excess, if any, of the PFIC’s net long-term capital gains over its net short-term capital losses. The amount so included in income generally will be treated as ordinary income to the extent of such Electing U.S. Holder’s allocable share of the PFIC’s ordinary earnings and as long-term capital gain to the extent of such Electing U.S. Holder’s allocable share of the PFIC’s net capital gains. Such Electing U.S. Holder generally will be required to translate such income into U.S. dollars based on the average exchange rate for the PFIC’s taxable year with respect to the PFIC’s functional currency. Such income generally will be treated as income from sources outside the United States for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes. Amounts previously included in income by such Electing U.S. Holder under the QEF rules generally will not be subject to tax when they are distributed to such Electing U.S. Holder. The Electing U.S. Holder’s tax basis in our ordinary shares generally will increase by any amounts so included under the QEF rules and decrease by any amounts not included in income when distributed.

 

An Electing U.S. Holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on such amounts for each taxable year in which we are a PFIC, regardless of whether such amounts are actually distributed to such Electing U.S. Holder. However, an Electing U.S. Holder may, subject to certain limitations, elect to defer payment of current U.S. federal income tax on such amounts, subject to an interest charge. If an Electing U.S. Holder is an individual, any such interest will be treated as non-deductible “personal interest.”

 

Any net operating losses or net capital losses of a PFIC will not pass through to the Electing U.S. Holder and will not offset any ordinary earnings or net capital gain of a PFIC recognized by the Electing U.S. Holder in subsequent years.

  

So long as an Electing U.S. Holder’s QEF election with respect to us is in effect with respect to the entire holding period for our ordinary shares, any gain or loss recognized by such Electing U.S. Holder on the sale, exchange or other disposition of such shares generally will be long-term capital gain or loss if such Electing U.S. Holder has held such shares for more than one year at the time of such sale, exchange or other disposition. Preferential tax rates for long-term capital gain (currently, a maximum rate of 20%) will apply to individual U.S. Holders. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

 

In general, a U.S. Holder must make a QEF election on or before the due date for filing its income tax return for the first year to which the QEF election is to apply. A U.S. Holder makes a QEF election by completing the relevant portions of and filing IRS Form 8621 in accordance with the instructions thereto. Upon request, we will annually furnish U.S. Holders with information needed in order to complete IRS Form 8621 (which form would be required to be filed with the IRS on an annual basis by the U.S. Holder) and to make and maintain a valid QEF election for any year in which we or any of our subsidiaries that we control is a PFIC. There is no assurance, however, that we will have timely knowledge of our status as a PFIC, or that the information that we provide will be adequate to allow U.S. Holders to make a QEF election. A QEF election will not apply to any taxable year during which we are not a PFIC, but will remain in effect with respect to any subsequent taxable year in which we become a PFIC. Each U.S. Holder should consult its own tax advisor with respect to the advisability of, the tax consequences of, and the procedures for making a QEF election with respect to us. 

 

Mark-to-Market Election. Alternatively, if our ordinary shares are treated as “marketable stock,” a U.S. Holder would be allowed to make a “mark-to-market” election with respect to our ordinary shares, provided the U.S. Holder completes and files IRS Form 8621 in accordance with the relevant instructions and related Treasury Regulations. If that election is made, the U.S. Holder generally would include as ordinary income in each taxable year the excess, if any, of the fair market value of our ordinary shares at the end of the taxable year over such holder’s adjusted tax basis in such ordinary shares. The U.S. Holder would also be permitted an ordinary loss in respect of the excess, if any, of the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in our ordinary shares over their fair market value at the end of the taxable year, but only to the extent of the net amount previously included in income as a result of the mark-to- market election. A U.S. Holder’s tax basis in our ordinary shares would be adjusted to reflect any such income or loss amount. Gain realized on the sale, exchange or other disposition of our ordinary shares would be treated as ordinary income, and any loss realized on the sale, exchange or other disposition of our ordinary shares would be treated as ordinary loss to the extent that such loss does not exceed the net mark-to-market gains previously included in income by the U.S. Holder, and any loss in excess of such amount will be treated as capital loss. Amounts treated as ordinary income will not be eligible for the favorable tax rates applicable to qualified dividend income or long-term capital gains.

 

Generally, stock will be considered marketable stock if it is “regularly traded” on a “qualified exchange” within the meaning of applicable Treasury Regulations. A class of stock is regularly traded on an exchange during any calendar year during which such class of stock is traded, other than in de minimis quantities, on at least 15 days during each calendar quarter. To be marketable stock, our ordinary shares must be regularly traded on a qualifying exchange (i) in the United States that is registered with the SEC or a national market system established pursuant to the Exchange Act or (ii) outside the United States that is properly regulated and meets certain trading, listing, financial disclosure and other requirements. Our ordinary shares are expected to constitute “marketable stock” as long as they remain listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market and are regularly traded.

 

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A mark-to-market election will not apply to our ordinary shares held by a U.S. Holder for any taxable year during which we are not a PFIC, but will remain in effect with respect to any subsequent taxable year in which we become a PFIC. Such election will not apply to any PFIC subsidiary that we own. Each U.S. Holder is encouraged to consult its own tax advisor with respect to the availability and tax consequences of a mark-to-market election with respect to our ordinary shares.

 

Each U.S. Holder should consult its own tax adviser with respect to the applicability of the “net investment income tax” (discussed below under “Medicare Tax on Investment Income”) where a mark-to-market election is in effect.

 

In addition, U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the IRS information reporting and filing obligations that may arise as a result of the ownership of ordinary shares in a PFIC, including IRS Form 8621, Information Return by a Shareholder of a Passive Foreign Investment Company or Qualified Electing Fund.

 

The U.S. federal income tax rules relating to PFICs, QEF elections, and mark-to market elections are complex. U.S. Holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors with respect to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares, any elections available with respect to such ordinary shares and the IRS information reporting obligations with respect to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares.

 

Certain Reporting Requirements

 

Certain U.S. Holders may be required to file IRS Form 926, Return by U.S. Transferor of Property to a Foreign Corporation, and IRS Form 5471, Information Return of U.S. Persons With Respect to Certain Foreign Corporations, reporting transfers of cash or other property to us and information relating to the U.S. Holder and us. Substantial penalties may be imposed upon a U.S. Holder that fails to comply. See also the discussion regarding Form 8621, Information Return by a Shareholder of a Passive Foreign Investment Company or Qualified Electing Fund, above.

 

In addition, certain U.S. Holders must report information on IRS Form 8938, Statement of Specified Foreign Financial Assets, with respect to their investments in certain “specified foreign financial assets,” which may include an investment in our ordinary shares, if the aggregate value of all of those assets exceeds $50,000 on the last day of the taxable year (and in some circumstances, a higher threshold). This reporting requirement applies to individuals and certain U.S. entities.

 

U.S. Holders who fail to report required information could become subject to substantial penalties. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of these reporting requirements arising from their investment in our ordinary shares.

 

Backup Withholding Tax and Information Reporting Requirements

 

Generally, information reporting requirements will apply to distributions on our ordinary shares or proceeds on the disposition of our ordinary shares paid within the United States (and, in certain cases, outside the United States) to U.S. Holders other than certain exempt recipients, such as corporations. Furthermore, backup withholding (currently at 24%) may apply to such amounts if the U.S. Holder fails to (i) provide a correct taxpayer identification number, (ii) report interest and dividends required to be shown on its U.S. federal income tax return, or (iii) make other appropriate certifications in the required manner. U.S. Holders who are required to establish their exempt status generally must provide such certification on IRS Form W-9.

 

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Amounts withheld as backup withholding from a payment may be credited against a U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability and such U.S. Holder may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by filing the appropriate claim for refund with the IRS and furnishing any required information in a timely manner.

 

Medicare Tax on Investment Income

 

Certain U.S. persons, including individuals, estates and trusts, will be subject to an additional 3.8% Medicare tax, or “net investment income tax,” on unearned income. For individuals, the additional net investment income tax applies to the lesser of (i) “net investment income” or (ii) the excess of “modified adjusted gross income” over $200,000 ($250,000 if married and filing jointly or $125,000 if married and filing separately). “Net investment income” generally equals the taxpayer’s gross investment income reduced by the deductions that are allocable to such income. Investment income generally includes, among other things, passive income such as interest, dividends, annuities, royalties, rents, and capital gains. U.S. Holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the implications of the additional net investment income tax resulting from their ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares.

 

THE DISCUSSION ABOVE IS A GENERAL SUMMARY. IT DOES NOT COVER ALL TAX MATTERS THAT MAY BE OF IMPORTANCE TO A PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR. EACH PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR IS URGED TO CONSULT ITS OWN TAX ADVISOR ABOUT THE TAX CONSEQUENCES RELATING TO THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR ORDINARY SHARES IN LIGHT OF THE INVESTOR’S OWN CIRCUMSTANCES, INCLUDING THE CONSEQUENCES OF ANY PROPOSED CHANGE IN APPLICABLE LAWS.

 

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RESEARCH GRANTS

 

We previously received grants from the Government of the State of Israel through the Innovation Authority, or IIA (formerly known as the Office of the Chief Scientist of the Israeli Ministry of Economy and Industry, or the OCS), for a research and development program (including a follow-up program for the clinical development of the Accordion Pill) in the aggregate amount of approximately NIS 50.2 million. However, in March 2018, we repaid a portion of the grant amounts received in 2016 in the amount of approximately NIS 8.1 million (approximately $2.3 million), including interest and linkage differences, following a review and assessment by the IIA of the 2016 program. We have not yet paid royalties to the IIA for these programs as we currently have no revenues from sales of products whose development was assisted by the governmental grants. As of February 27, 2019, the aggregate net amount of grants that we have received from the IIA is approximately NIS 42.3 million (or approximately $11.3 million), which amount has accrued aggregate interest of approximately $650,000 as of such date.

 

In February 2018, the IIA approved our request to transfer all of the manufacturing rights of our AP-CD/LD product candidate that was developed under one of the IIA funded programs to LTS. As a result, we will be required to pay the IIA royalties from revenue generated from our AP-CD/LD product candidate at an increased rate and up to an increased cap amount. The IIA noted that the approval granted was exceptional and that the IIA will not approve us manufacturing additional product candidates out of Israel. For a description of our obligations in connection with the grants from IIA under the Encouragement of Industrial Research, Development and Technological Innovation in the Industry Law, 5744-1984, see “Item 1. — Business — Research Grants — Grants Under the Innovation Law” and “Item 1-A. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Operations in Israel” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen, under which we may issue and sell from time to time up to $75,000,000 of our ordinary shares through Cowen as our sales agent. Sales of our ordinary shares, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the Nasdaq Capital Market or any other existing trading market for our ordinary shares. If authorized by us in writing, Cowen may purchase shares of our ordinary shares as principal.

 

Cowen will offer our ordinary shares subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of ordinary shares to be sold through Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the ordinary shares requested to be sold by us. We may instruct Cowen not to sell ordinary shares if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our ordinary shares being made through Cowen under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party. Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the sales agreement, to terminate the sales agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time.

 

The aggregate compensation payable to Cowen as sales agent will be an amount equal to up to 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the sales agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse up to an aggregate of $75,000 of Cowen’s actual outside legal expenses incurred by Cowen in connection with this offering. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to Cowen under the sales agreement, will be approximately $400,000.

 

The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such ordinary shares.

 

Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market on each day in which ordinary shares are sold through it as sales agent under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of ordinary shares sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold, the percentage of the daily trading volume and the net proceeds to us.

 

We will report at least quarterly the number of ordinary shares sold through Cowen under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to Cowen in connection with the sales of ordinary shares.

 

Settlement for sales of ordinary shares will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise or as otherwise required by law, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

In connection with the sales of our ordinary shares on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. As sales agent, Cowen will not engage in any transactions that stabilize our ordinary shares.

 

Our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market and trade under the symbol “NTEC.” The transfer agent of our ordinary shares is VStock Transfer, LLC.

 

Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

Certain legal matters with respect to U.S. law will be passed upon for us by McDermott Will & Emery LLP, New York, New York and certain legal matters with respect to Israeli law will be passed upon for us by Meitar Liquornik Geva Leshem Tal, Law Offices, Ramat Gan, Israel. Cowen and Company, LLC is being represented by Cooley LLP, New York, New York, with respect to U.S. law and by Gornitzky & Co., Tel-Aviv, Israel, with respect to Israeli law in connection with this offering.

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an explanatory paragraph relating to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1(2) to the financial statements) of Kesselman & Kesselman, Certified Public Accountants (Isr.), an independent registered public accounting firm and a member firm of PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

Prior to January 1, 2019, we were subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act that are applicable to a foreign private issuer. In accordance with the Exchange Act, we filed reports, including annual reports on Form 20-F, with the SEC. We also furnished to the SEC under cover of Form 6-K material information required to be made public in Israel, filed with and made public by any stock exchange or distributed by us to our shareholders. We were also exempt from the rules under the Exchange Act prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements to shareholders and our officers, directors and principal shareholders were exempt from the “short-swing profits” reporting and liability provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act and related Exchange Act rules.

 

Effective January 1, 2019, we are required to file periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms with the SEC, which are more detailed and extensive in certain respects, and which must be filed more promptly, than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. In addition, we are now required to comply with U.S. proxy requirements and Regulation FD (Fair Disclosure) and our officers, directors and principal shareholders are subject to the beneficial ownership reporting and short-swing profit recovery requirements in Section 16 of the Exchange Act.

 

We have filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933. This prospectus is part of the registration statement but the registration statement includes and incorporates by reference additional information and exhibits. We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding companies, such as ours, that file documents electronically with the SEC. The address of that site on the worldwide web is http://www.sec.gov. The information on the SEC’s web site is not part of this prospectus, and any references to this web site or any other web site are inactive textual references only.  

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with it into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. 

 

  our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended on December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on February 27, 2019;

  

  our Current Reports on Form 8-K (other than the information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or 7.01 thereof or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 thereof) filed with the SEC January 2, 2019, January 7, 2019, January 25, 2019, and February 27, 2019; and
     
  the description of our ordinary shares contained in Item 1 of the Registration Statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-37521), filed with the SEC on July 28, 2015, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

All filings filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial filing of this registration statement of which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is a part and prior to the effectiveness of such registration statement (excluding information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 and 7.01 of Form 8-K) shall also be deemed to be incorporated by reference into the prospectus.

 

You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. Any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for the purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a later statement contained in this prospectus or in any other document incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

  

We will provide you without charge, upon your written or oral request, a copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, other than exhibits to such documents which are not specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. Please direct your written or telephone requests to 12 Hartom Street, Har Hotzvim, Jerusalem 9777512, Israel Attn: Chief Financial Officer, telephone number +972 (2) 586 4657. You may also obtain information about us by visiting our website at www.intecpharma.com. Except for the specific incorporated documents listed above, no information available on or through our website shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

$200,000,000

 

Ordinary Shares

Warrants to Purchase Ordinary Shares

Subscription Rights

Debt Securities

Units

 

 

INTEC PHARMA LTD.

 

We may offer, issue and sell from time to time up to US $200,000,000, of our ordinary shares, warrants to purchase ordinary shares, subscription rights, debt securities and a combination of such securities, separately or as units, in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides a general description of offerings of these securities that we may undertake.

 

We refer to the ordinary shares, warrants, subscription rights, debt securities and units collectively as “securities” in this prospectus.

 

Each time we sell securities pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the specific terms of the securities offered. This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities by us unless accompanied by the applicable prospectus supplement. You should read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement carefully before you invest in our securities.

 

We may, from time to time, offer and sell the securities through public or private transactions, directly or through underwriters, agents or dealers, on or off the Nasdaq Capital Market at prevailing market prices or at privately negotiated prices. If any underwriters, agents or dealers are involved in the sale of any of these securities, the applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the names of the underwriters, agents or dealers and any applicable fees, commissions or discounts. Our net proceeds from the sale of securities will also be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement

 

Our ordinary shares are traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “NTEC.” The closing price of our ordinary shares, as reported on the Nasdaq Capital Market on February 27, 2019 was $8.93.

 

We are an emerging growth company as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and, as such, we have elected to take advantage of certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and future filings.

  

 

 

Investing in our securities involves risks. See the section entitled “Risk Factors” included in or incorporated by reference into the accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents we incorporate by reference in this prospectus.

 

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

The date of this prospectus is March 28, 2019

 

 

Table of Contents 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page
   
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS 1
   
RISK FACTORS 2
   
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 3
   
OUR BUSINESS 4
   
USE OF PROCEEDS 5
   
THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER 6
   
DESCRIPTION OF ORDINARY SHARES 7
   
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 11
   
DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS 12
   
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 13
   
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS 25
   
FORM OF SECURITIES 26
   
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 27
   
LEGAL MATTERS 29
   
EXPERTS 30
   
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 30
   
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE 30
   
ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES 31

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer and sell separately or together in any combination the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total price to the public of $200,000,000. The offer and sale of securities under this prospectus may be made from time to time, in one or more offerings, in any manner described under the section in this prospectus entitled “Plan of Distribution.” This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement, certain parts of which are omitted in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. Accordingly, you should refer to the registration statement and its exhibits for further information about us and our securities. Copies of the registration statement and its exhibits are on file with the SEC. Statements contained in this prospectus concerning the documents we have filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive, and in each instance we refer you to a copy of the actual document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or otherwise filed with the SEC.

 

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities we will provide this prospectus and a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus, and may also contain information about any material federal income tax considerations relating to the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. You should carefully read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”

 

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement or any “free writing prospectus.” We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, securities only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus and in any accompanying prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the dates of their covers, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or of any sale of our securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus and the prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement, provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date — for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement — the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

This prospectus incorporates by reference market data and certain industry data and forecasts that were obtained from market research databases, consultant surveys commissioned by us, publicly available information, reports of governmental agencies and industry publications and surveys. Industry surveys, publications, consultant surveys commissioned by us and forecasts generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. We have relied on certain data from third-party sources, including internal surveys, industry forecasts and market research, which we believe to be reliable based on our management’s knowledge of the industry. Statements as to our market position are based on the most currently available data. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the industry data presented in this annual report, our estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the headings “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated herein by reference.

 

Certain figures included in this prospectus have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them. 

 

When used herein, unless the context requires otherwise, references to the “Company, “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to Intec Pharma Ltd., an Israeli company, and its U.S. subsidiary Intec Pharma Inc., unless the context otherwise requires.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Before purchasing any of the securities you should carefully consider the risk factors set forth below and incorporated by reference in this prospectus from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or Current Report on Form 8-K, as well as the risks, uncertainties and additional information set forth in our SEC reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K and in the other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. For a description of these reports and documents, and information about where you can find them, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents By Reference.” Additional risks not presently known or that we presently consider to be immaterial could subsequently materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, contains, and any prospectus supplement may contain statements that are forward-looking statements about our expectations, beliefs or intentions regarding, among other things, our product development efforts, business, financial condition, results of operations, strategies, plans and prospects. In addition, from time to time, we or our representatives have made or may make forward-looking statements, orally or in writing. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking words such as “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “may,” “should,” “anticipate,” “could,” “might,” “seek,” “target,” “will,” “project,” “forecast,” “continue” or their negatives or variations of these words or other comparable words or by the fact that these statements do not relate strictly to historical matters. These forward-looking statements may be included in, among other things, various filings made by us with the SEC, press releases or oral statements made by or with the approval of one of our authorized executive officers. Forward-looking statements relate to anticipated or expected events, activities, trends or results as of the date they are made. Because forward-looking statements relate to matters that have not yet occurred, these statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from any future results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Many factors could cause our actual activities or results to differ materially from the activities and results anticipated in forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to:

 

we are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company with a history of operating losses, are not currently profitable, do not expect to become profitable in the near future and may never become profitable;

 

our independent registered public accounting firm has expressed substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern;

 

because of our limited operating history, we may not be able to successfully operate our business or execute our business plan;

 

we face continuous technological change, and developments by competitors may render our products or technologies obsolete or non-competitive. If our new or existing product candidates are rendered obsolete or non-competitive, our marketing and sales will suffer and we may never be profitable;

 

we license our core technology on an exclusive basis from Yissum (Hebrew University), and we could lose our rights to this license if a dispute with Yissum arises or if we fail to comply with the financial and other terms of the license;

 

if we fail to adequately protect, enforce or secure rights to the patents which were licensed to us or any patents we may own in the future, the value of our intellectual property rights would diminish and our business and competitive position would suffer;

 

our product candidates are at various stages of preclinical and clinical development and may never be commercialized;

 

we cannot be certain that the results of our ACCORDANCE study or any future Phase III clinical trial, even if all endpoints are met, will support regulatory approval of any of our product candidates for any indication;

 

our product candidates are subject to extensive regulation and are at various stages of regulatory development and may never obtain regulatory approval;

 

we are subject to anti-kickback laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could have adverse consequences to us; and

 

potential political, economic and military instability in the State of Israel, where some of our senior management, our head executive office, research and development, and manufacturing facilities are located, may adversely affect our results of operations.

 

We believe these forward-looking statements are reasonable; however, these statements are only current predictions and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from those anticipated by the forward-looking statements. We discuss many of these risks in this prospectus in greater detail under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Given these uncertainties, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events.

 

All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf speak only as of the date hereof and are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements included in this prospectus. We undertake no obligations to update or revise forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that arise after the date made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. In evaluating forward-looking statements, you should consider these risks and uncertainties and not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.

 

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OUR BUSINESS

 

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing drugs based on our proprietary Accordion Pill platform technology, which we refer to as the Accordion Pill. Our Accordion Pill is an oral drug delivery system that is designed to improve the efficacy and safety of existing drugs and drugs in development by utilizing an efficient gastric retention and specific release mechanism. Our product pipeline currently includes several product candidates in various clinical trial stages. Our leading product candidate, Accordion Pill Carbidopa/Levodopa, or AP-CD/LD, is being developed for the indication of treatment of Parkinson’s disease symptoms in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients. We have successfully completed a Phase II clinical trial for AP-CD/LD for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease symptoms in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients and have agreed with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, on the remaining clinical development program for AP-CD/LD for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease symptoms in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients, including the main principles of the single required pivotal Phase III clinical trial in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients.

 

We are currently conducting a pivotal Phase III clinical for AP-CD/LD for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease known as the ACCORDANCE study. In April 2016, we enrolled the first patient in the ACCORDANCE study and in October 2018, we completed enrollment. We currently expect to release top-line results in mid-2019. In our correspondence with the FDA, the FDA previously agreed that an acceptable regulatory pathway for AP-CD/LD would be to submit a new drug application, or NDA, pursuant to Section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which is a streamlined approval pathway that may accelerate the time to commercialize and decrease the costs of FDA approval for AP–CD/LD, as compared to those typically associated with a new chemical entity.

 

In February 2019, we announced that AP-CD/LD met the primary endpoint in a pharmacokinetic, or PK, study comparing the AP-CD/LD 50/500mg dosed three times daily, the most common dose used in our on-going ACCORDANCE study, to 1.5 tablets of CD/LD immediate release (Sinemet™) 25/100 dosed five times per day in Parkinson's disease patients.

 

We have invested in the commercial scale manufacture of AP-CD/LD, for which we are in partnership with LTS Lohmann Therapie-Systeme AG, or LTS. In December 2018, the large commercial scale production line was delivered to LTS in Andernacht, Germany, and we are in the process of installing and connecting all the ancillary equipment. During 2019, we plan to begin the validation, bridging and stability studies needed for regulatory filing and expect these should put us on track for a submission with the FDA in mid-to-late 2020.

 

In addition, we have initiated a clinical development program for our Accordion Pill platform with the two primary cannabinoids contained in cannabis sativa, which we refer to as AP-Cannabinoids. We are formulating and testing cannabidiol, or CBD, and 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, for the treatment of various pain indications. AP-Cannabinoids are designed to extend the absorption phase of CBD and THC, with the goal of more consistent levels for an improved therapeutic effect which may address several major drawbacks of current methods of treatment, such as short duration of effect, delayed onset, variability of exposure, variability of the administered dose and adverse events that correlate with peak levels. In March 2017, we initiated a Phase I single-center, single-dose, randomized, three-way crossover clinical trial in Israel to compare the safety, tolerability and PK of AP-THC/CBD, with Sativex®, an oral buccal spray containing CBD and THC that is commercially available outside of the United States. Initial results demonstrate that the Accordion Pill platform is well-suited to safely deliver CBD and THC with significant improvements in exposure compared with Sativex. In December 2018, we initiated a PK study of AP-THC. We have completed the dosing of the AP-THC PK study and the data is in the process of being analyzed by a third party contract research organization per protocol. However, upon raw data review, the delivery of THC does not appear to meet our full program expectations. We await the full dataset and the statistical analysis to determine our next steps.

 

In December 2018, we reported that we successfully developed an Accordion Pill for a Novartis proprietary compound that met the required in vitro specifications set forth in a feasibility agreement with Novartis. We have mutually agreed to proceed with the program and plan to enter the clinic with a first-in-human PK study in the first half of 2019. We believe continued success with this program further validates the platform, confirms our technical abilities to build custom APs and paves the way for additional collaborative agreements.

 

Our registered office and principal place of business is located at 12 Hartom Street, Har Hotzvim, Jerusalem 9777512, Israel and our telephone number in Israel is +972 (2) 586 4657. Our website address is http://www.intecpharma.com. The information contained on our website or available through our website does not constitute part of this prospectus. Our registered agent in the United States is Intec Pharma, Inc., whose address is 3 Columbus Circle – 15th Floor, New York, NY 10019 USA.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless otherwise indicated in an accompanying prospectus supplement, the net proceeds from the sale of securities will be used for our clinical trials, to advance our pre-commercial activities, for working capital and for general corporate purposes. Pending these uses, we may invest the net proceeds from the sale of securities in accordance with our investment policy, as may be amended from time to time, which currently includes bank deposits carrying interest, corporate debt obligations with a minimum of an A rating by global rating agencies and investments in United States Government Securities and Israeli Government Securities. When specific securities are offered, the prospectus supplement relating thereto will set forth our intended use of the net proceeds that we receive from the sale of such securities.

 

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THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

 

General

 

The descriptions of the securities contained in this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplements, summarize all of the material terms and provisions of the various types of securities that we may offer. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to any securities the particular terms of the securities offered by that prospectus supplement. If we indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, the terms of the securities may differ from the terms we have summarized below. We may also include in the prospectus supplement information about material United States federal income tax considerations relating to the securities, and the securities exchange, if any, on which the securities will be listed.

 

We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings:

 

  ordinary shares;
     
 

warrants to purchase ordinary shares;

     
  subscription rights to purchase ordinary shares or debt securities;
     
  debt securities; and
     
  units consisting of any combination of the securities listed above.

 

In this prospectus, we refer to the ordinary shares, subscription rights, warrants, debt securities and units collectively as “securities.” The total dollar amount of all securities that we may sell will not exceed $200,000,000.

 

If we issue debt securities at a discount from their original stated principal amount, then, for purposes of calculating the total dollar amount of all securities issued under this prospectus, we will treat the initial offering price of the debt securities as the total original principal amount of the debt securities.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF ORDINARY SHARES

 

General

 

The following are summaries of material provisions of our articles of association and the Israeli Companies Law 5759-1999, or the Companies Law, insofar as they relate to the material terms of our ordinary shares.

 

As of February 27, 2019, our authorized share capital consists of 100,000,000 ordinary shares, no par value, 33,232,988 of which are issued and outstanding. All of our outstanding ordinary shares are validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable. Our ordinary shares are not redeemable and do not have any preemptive rights.

 

Holders of our ordinary shares have one vote for each ordinary share held on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders at a shareholder meeting. Because our ordinary shares do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors, the holders of a majority of the voting power represented at a shareholders meeting have the power to elect all of our directors, subject to the special approval requirements for external directors (if applicable). Shareholders may vote at shareholder meetings either in person, by proxy or by written ballot. The Companies Law does not allow public companies to adopt shareholder resolutions by means of written consent in lieu of a shareholder meeting. The board of directors shall determine and provide a record date for each shareholders meeting and all shareholders at such record date may vote. Unless stipulated differently in the Companies Law or in our articles of association, all shareholders’ resolutions shall be approved by a simple majority vote. An amendment to our articles of association requires the prior approval of a simple majority of our shares represented and voting at a general meeting and of the holders of a class of shares whose rights are being affected. Our number with the Israeli Registrar of Companies is 513022780. Our purpose is set forth in Section 2 of our articles of association and as to engage in any legal business.

 

Transfer of Shares

 

Our ordinary shares that are fully paid for are issued in registered form and may be freely transferred under our articles of association, unless the transfer is restricted or prohibited by applicable law or the rules of a stock exchange on which the shares are traded. The ownership or voting of our ordinary shares by non-residents of Israel is not restricted in any way by our articles of association or Israeli law, except for ownership by nationals of some countries that are, or have been, in a state of war with Israel.

 

Exercise of Power by the Board

 

Pursuant to the Companies Law and our articles of association, our board of directors may exercise all powers and take all actions that are not required under law or under our articles of association to be exercised or taken by our shareholders, including the power to borrow money for company purposes.

 

Changes in Share Capital

 

Our articles of association enable us to increase or reduce our share capital. Any such change is subject to the provisions of the Companies Law and must be approved by a resolution duly passed by our shareholders at a general or special meeting by voting on such change in the capital. In addition, transactions that have the effect of reducing capital, such as the declaration and payment of dividends in the absence of sufficient retained earnings and profits and an issuance of shares for less than their nominal value, require a resolution of our board of directors and court approval.

 

Dividends

 

Under the Companies Law, we may declare and pay dividends only if, upon the determination of our board of directors, there is no reasonable concern that the distribution will prevent us from being able to meet the terms of our existing and foreseeable obligations as they become due. Under the Companies Law, the distribution amount is further limited to the greater of retained earnings or earnings generated over the two most recent years legally available for distribution according to our then last reviewed or audited financial statements, provided that the date of the financial statements is not more than six months prior to the date of distribution. In the event that we do not have retained earnings or earnings generated over the two most recent years legally available for distribution, we may seek the approval of the court in order to distribute a dividend. The court may approve our request if it is convinced that there is no reasonable concern that the payment of a dividend will prevent us from satisfying our existing and foreseeable obligations as they become due.

 

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Shareholder Meetings

 

Under the Companies Law, we are required to hold an annual general meeting of our shareholders once in every calendar year and no later than 15 months following the date of the previous annual general meeting. All meetings other than the annual general meeting of shareholders are referred to as special meetings. Our board of directors may call special meetings whenever it deems fit, at such time and place, within or outside of Israel, as it may determine. In addition, the Companies Law and our articles of association provide that our board of directors is required to convene a special meeting upon the written request of (i) any two of our directors or one quarter of the directors then in office or (ii) one or more shareholders holding, in the aggregate, (a) 5% of our issued share capital and 1% of our outstanding voting power or (b) 5% of our outstanding voting power.

 

Subject to the provisions of the Companies Law and the regulations promulgated thereunder, shareholders entitled to participate and vote at general meetings are the shareholders of record on a date to be decided by the board of directors. Furthermore, the Companies Law and our articles of association require that resolutions regarding the following matters must be passed at a general meeting of our shareholders:

 

  amendments to our articles of association;

 

  appointment or termination of our auditors;

 

  appointment and dismissal of external directors (if applicable);

 

  approval of acts and transactions requiring general meeting approval pursuant to the Companies Law;

 

  director compensation and compensation of the principal executive officer (subject to certain exceptions);

 

  increases or reductions of our authorized share capital;

 

  a merger;

 

  the exercise of our board of directors’ powers by a general meeting, if our board of directors is unable to exercise its powers and the exercise of any of its powers is required for our proper management; and

 

  authorization of the chairman of the board of directors or his relative to act as the company’s chief executive officer or act with such authority; or authorization of the company’s chief executive officer or his relative to act as the chairman of the board of directors or act with such authority.

 

The Companies Law requires that a notice of any annual or special shareholders meeting be provided at least 21 days prior to the meeting and if the agenda of the meeting includes the appointment or removal of directors, the approval of transactions with office holders or interested or related parties, or an approval of a merger, notice must be provided at least 35 days prior to the meeting.

 

The Companies Law does not allow shareholders of publicly traded companies to approve corporate matters by written consent.

 

Pursuant to our articles of association, holders of our ordinary shares have one vote for each ordinary share held on all matters submitted to a vote before the shareholders at a general meeting.

 

Quorum

 

The quorum required for our general meetings of shareholders consists of at least two shareholders present in person, by proxy or written ballot who hold or represent between them at least thirty three and one third percent (331/3%) of the total outstanding voting rights, within half an hour from the appointed time.

 

A meeting adjourned for lack of a quorum is adjourned to the same day in the following week at the same time and place or on a later date if so specified in the summons or notice of the meeting. At the reconvened meeting, the quorum required consists of at least two shareholders present in person, by proxy or written ballot who hold or represent between them at least thirty three and one third percent (331/3%) of the total outstanding voting rights, within half an hour from the appointed time.

 

Resolutions

 

Our articles of association provide that all resolutions of our shareholders require a simple majority vote, unless otherwise required by applicable law.

 

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Under the Companies Law, a shareholder of a public company may vote in a meeting and in a class meeting by means of a written ballot in which the shareholder indicates how he or she votes on resolutions relating to the following matters:

 

  an appointment or removal of directors;

 

  an approval of transactions with office holders or interested or related parties, that require shareholder approval;

 

  an approval of a merger;

 

  authorizing the chairman of the board of directors or his relative to act as the company’s chief executive officer or act with such authority; or authorize the company’s chief executive officer or his relative to act as the chairman of the board of directors or act with such authority;

 

  any other matter that is determined in the articles of association to be voted on by way of a written ballot. Our articles of association do not stipulate any additional matters; and

 

  other matters which may be prescribed by Israel’s Minister of Justice.

 

The Companies Law provides that a shareholder, in exercising his or her rights and performing his or her obligations toward the company and its other shareholders, must act in good faith and in a customary manner, and avoid abusing his or her power. This is required when voting at general meetings on matters such as changes to the articles of association, increasing the company’s authorized share capital, mergers and approval of certain interested or related party transactions. A shareholder also has a general duty to refrain from depriving any other shareholder of its rights as a shareholder. In addition, any controlling shareholder, any shareholder who knows that its vote can determine the outcome of a shareholder’s vote and any shareholder who, under such company’s articles of association, can appoint or prevent the appointment of an office holder or has other power towards the company, is required to act with fairness towards the company. The Companies Law does not describe the substance of this duty except that the remedies generally available upon a breach of contract will also apply to a breach of the duty to act with fairness, and, to the best of our knowledge, we believe there is no binding case law that addresses this subject directly.

 

Under the Companies Law, unless provided otherwise in a company’s articles of association, a resolution at a shareholders meeting requires approval by a simple majority of the voting rights represented at the meeting, in person, by proxy or written ballot, and voting on the resolution. Generally, a resolution for the voluntary winding up of the company requires the approval of holders of 75% of the voting rights represented at the meeting, in person, by proxy or by written ballot and voting on the resolution.

 

In the event of our liquidation, after satisfaction of liabilities to creditors, our assets will be distributed to the holders of our ordinary shares in proportion to their shareholdings. This right, as well as the right to receive dividends, may be affected by the grant of preferential dividend or distribution rights to the holders of a class of shares with preferential rights that may be authorized in the future.

 

Access to Corporate Records

 

Under the Companies Law, all shareholders of a company generally have the right to review minutes of the company’s general meetings, its shareholders register and principal shareholders register, its articles of association, its financial statements and any document it is required by law to file publicly with the Israeli Companies Registrar and the Israeli Securities Authority, or ISA. Any of our shareholders may request access to review any document in our possession that relates to any action or transaction with a related party, interested party or office holder that requires shareholder approval under the Companies Law. We may deny a request to review a document if we determine that the request was not made in good faith, that the document contains a commercial secret or a patent or that the document’s disclosure may otherwise prejudice our interests.

 

Acquisitions under Israeli Law

 

Full Tender Offer

 

A person wishing to acquire shares or a class of shares of an Israeli public company and who would, as a result, own more than 90% of the target company’s issued and outstanding share capital or of a certain class of its shares, is required by the Companies Law to make a full tender offer (as defined in the Companies Law) to all of the company’s shareholders for the purchase of all of the issued and outstanding shares of the company or class of shares. If either (i) the shareholders who do not accept the offer hold, in the aggregate, less than 5% of the issued and outstanding share capital of the company or of the applicable class, and more than half of the shareholders who do not have a personal interest in the offer accept the offer, or (ii) the shareholders who do not accept the offer hold less than 2% of the issued and outstanding share capital of the company or of the applicable class, then all of the shares that the acquirer offered to purchase will be transferred to the acquirer by operation of law. However, a shareholder that had its shares so transferred, whether or not it accepted the tender offer (unless otherwise provided in the offering memorandum), may, within six months from the date of acceptance of the tender offer, petition the court to determine that the tender offer was for less than fair value and that the fair value should be paid as determined by the court. If either (i) the shareholders who did not accept the tender offer hold at least 5% of the issued and outstanding share capital of the company or of the applicable class of shares or the shareholders who accept the offer constitute less than a majority of the offerees that do not have a personal interest in the acceptance of the tender offer, or (ii) the shareholders who did not accept the tender offer hold 2% or more of the issued and outstanding share capital of the company (or of the applicable class), the acquirer may not acquire shares of the company that will increase its holdings to more than 90% of the company’s issued and outstanding share capital or of the applicable class from shareholders who accepted the tender offer. Shares purchased not in accordance with those provisions shall become “dormant shares” and shall not grant the purchaser any rights so long as they are held by the purchaser.

 

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Special Tender Offer

 

According to the Companies Law, an acquisition pursuant to which a purchaser shall hold a “controlling stake”, that is defined as 25% or more of the voting rights if no other shareholder holds a controlling stake, or an acquisition pursuant to which such purchaser shall hold more than 45% of the voting rights of the company if no other shareholder owns more than 45% of the voting rights, may not be performed by way of market accumulation, but only by way of a special tender offer (as defined in the Companies Law) made to all of the company’s shareholders on a pro rata basis. A special tender offer may not be consummated unless a majority of the shareholders who announced their stand on such offer have accepted it (in counting the total votes of such shareholders, shares held by the controlling shareholders, shareholders who have a personal interest in the offer, shareholders who own 25% or more of the voting rights in the company, relatives or representatives of any of the above or the bidder and corporations under their control, shall not be taken into account). A shareholder may be free to object to such an offer without such objection being deemed as a waiver of his right to sell its respective shares if the transaction is approved by a majority of the company’s shareholders despite his objection. Shares purchased not in accordance with those provisions shall become “dormant shares” and shall not grant the purchaser any rights so long as they are held by the purchaser. If a special tender offer is accepted, then the purchaser or any person or entity controlling it or under common control with the purchaser or such controlling person or entity may not make a subsequent tender offer for the purchase of shares of the target company and may not enter into a merger with the target company for a period of one year from the date of the offer, unless the purchaser or such person or entity undertook to effect such an offer or merger in the initial special tender offer.

 

Under regulations enacted pursuant to the Companies Law, the above special tender offer requirements may not apply to companies whose shares are listed for trading on a foreign stock exchange if, among other things, the relevant foreign laws or the rules of the stock exchange include provisions limiting the percentage of control which may be acquired or that the purchaser is required to make a tender offer to the public. However, we believe the ISA’s current opinion is that such leniency does not apply with respect to companies whose shares are listed for trading on stock exchanges in the United States, including the Nasdaq Capital Market.

 

Merger

 

The Companies Law permits merger transactions if approved by each party’s board of directors and, unless certain requirements described under the Companies Law are met, a majority of each party’s shares voted on the proposed merger at a shareholders’ meeting called with at least 35 days’ prior notice.

 

For purposes of the shareholder vote, unless a court rules otherwise, the merger will not be deemed approved if a majority of the shares represented at the shareholders meeting that are held by parties other than the other party to the merger, or by any person who holds 25% or more of the outstanding shares or the right to appoint 25% or more of the directors of the other party, vote against the merger. If the transaction would have been approved but for the separate approval of each class or the exclusion of the votes of certain shareholders as provided above, a court may still approve the merger upon the request of holders of at least 25% of the voting rights of a company, if the court holds that the merger is fair and reasonable, taking into account the value of the parties to the merger and the consideration offered to the shareholders.

 

Upon the request of a creditor of either party to the proposed merger, the court may delay or prevent the merger if it concludes that there exists a reasonable concern that, as a result of the merger, the surviving company will be unable to satisfy the obligations of any of the parties to the merger, and may further give instructions to secure the rights of creditors.

 

In addition, a merger may not be completed unless at least 50 days have passed from the date that a proposal for approval of the merger was filed by each party with the Israeli Registrar of Companies and 30 days have passed from the date the merger was approved by the shareholders of each party.

 

Antitakeover Measures

 

The Companies Law allows us to create and issue shares having rights different from those attached to our ordinary shares, including shares providing certain preferred rights, distributions or other matters and shares having preemptive rights. As of the date of this prospectus, we do not have any authorized or issued shares other than our ordinary shares. In the future, if we do create and issue a class of shares other than ordinary shares, such class of shares, depending on the specific rights that may be attached to them, may delay or prevent a takeover or otherwise prevent our shareholders from realizing a potential premium over the market value of their ordinary shares. The authorization of a new class of shares will require an amendment to our articles of association which requires the prior approval of the holders of a majority of our shares at a general meeting.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue and offer warrants under the material terms and conditions described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. The accompanying prospectus supplement may add, update or change the terms and conditions of the warrants as described in this prospectus.

 

We may issue warrants to purchase ordinary shares. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities and may be attached to, or separate from, such securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency for or with holders or beneficial owners of warrants. The terms of any warrants to be issued and a description of the material provisions of the applicable warrant agreement will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the following terms of any warrants in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered:

 

  the title of such warrants;

 

  the aggregate number of such warrants;

 

  the price or prices at which such warrants will be issued and exercised;

 

  the currency or currencies in which the price of such warrants will be payable;

 

  the securities purchasable upon exercise of such warrants;

 

  the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;

 

  if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

 

  if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which such warrants are issued and the number of such warrants issued with each such security;

 

  if applicable, the date on and after which such warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

  information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

  material Israeli and United States federal income tax consequences, if any;

 

  the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any; and

 

  any other terms of such warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of such warrants.

 

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any warrants we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable warrant agreement and warrant certificate, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer warrants. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the applicable warrant agreement and warrant certificate if we offer warrants, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” beginning on page 30. We urge you to read the applicable warrant agreement and warrant certificate and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

 

We may issue subscription rights to purchase our ordinary shares. These subscription rights may be issued independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the shareholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.

 

The prospectus supplement relating to any subscription rights we offer will, to the extent applicable, include specific terms relating to the offering, including some or all of the following:

 

  the price, if any, for the subscription rights;

 

  the exercise price payable for each ordinary share upon the exercise of the subscription rights;

 

  the number of subscription rights to be issued to each shareholder;

 

  the number and terms of the ordinary shares which may be purchased per each subscription right;

 

  the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;

 

  any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;

 

  the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;

 

  the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities; and

 

  if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement which may be entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.

 

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any subscription rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable subscription rights agreement, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer subscription rights. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the applicable subscription rights agreement if we offer subscription rights, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” beginning on page 30. We urge you to read the applicable subscription rights agreement and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

General

 

We may issue senior and subordinated debt securities under indentures by and among us, certain of our subsidiaries, if any, and a trustee to be named in the senior indenture, as the indenture trustee. Each indenture will be subject to, and governed by, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act, and we may supplement the indenture from time to time.

 

This prospectus summarizes the material provisions of the indentures and the debt securities that we may issue under the indentures. This summary is not complete and may not describe all of the provisions of the indentures or of any of the debt securities that might be important to you. For additional information, you should carefully read the forms of indenture and debt securities that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and any definitive indentures, supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities that are incorporated by reference as exhibits to such registration statement.

 

When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of those debt securities in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement whether the general terms in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of a particular issue of debt securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable supplement.

 

In the summary below, we have included references to the section numbers of the indentures so that you can easily locate the related provisions in the indentures for additional detail. You should also refer to the applicable indenture for the definitions of any capitalized terms that we use below but do not define in this prospectus. When we refer to particular sections of the indentures or to defined terms in the indentures, we intend to incorporate by reference those sections and defined terms into this prospectus.

 

Terms

 

The debt securities will be our direct obligations. The amount of debt securities we may offer under this prospectus is unlimited as to principal amount. We may issue the debt securities, from time to time and in one or more series, established in or pursuant to authority granted by one or more resolutions of our board of directors, and set forth in, or determined in the manner provided in, an officers’ certificate, or established in one or more supplemental indentures. We may issue debt securities with terms different from those of our previously issued debt securities (Section 301).

 

Each indenture provides that there may be more than one trustee under such indenture, each such trustee with respect to one or more series of debt securities. Any trustee under the indentures may resign or be removed with respect to one or more series of debt securities, and a successor trustee may be appointed to act with respect to that series (Sections 608 and 609). If two or more persons act as trustee with respect to different series of debt securities, each trustee shall be a trustee of a trust under that indenture separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee (Sections 101 and 609). Except as otherwise indicated in this prospectus, each trustee may take any action described in this prospectus only with respect to the one or more series of debt securities for which it is trustee under the relevant indenture.

 

You should refer to the applicable supplement to this prospectus relating to a particular series of debt securities for the specific terms of the debt securities, including, but not limited to:

 

  the title of the debt securities, whether the debt securities will be guaranteed and the identity of the guarantor or guarantors, if any;

 

  the total principal amount of the debt securities and any limit on the total principal amount;

 

  the price, expressed as a percentage of the principal amount of the debt securities, at which we will issue the debt securities and any portion of the principal amount payable upon acceleration of the debt securities;

 

  the terms, if any, by which holders of the debt securities may convert or exchange the debt securities for our ordinary shares, or any of our other securities or property;

 

  if the debt securities are convertible or exchangeable, any limitations on the ownership or transferability of the securities or property into which holders may convert or exchange the debt securities;

 

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  the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, on which we will be obligated to pay the principal of the debt securities and the amount of principal we will be obligated to pay;

 

  the rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, at which the debt securities of the series will bear interest, if any, or the method by which the rate or rates will be determined;

 

  whether the debt securities rank as senior, senior subordinated or subordinated or any combination thereof and the terms of any subordination;

 

  the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, from which any interest will accrue on the debt securities, the dates on which we will be obligated to pay any interest, the regular record dates, if any, for the interest payments, or the method by which the dates will be determined, the persons to whom we will be obligated to pay interest and the basis upon which interest will be calculated, if other than that of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months;

 

  the place or places where the principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, interest or additional amounts on, the debt securities will be payable, where the holders of the debt securities may surrender their debt securities for conversion, transfer or exchange, and where the holders may serve notices or demands to us in respect of the debt securities and the indenture (Section 101);

 

  whether the debt securities will be in registered or bearer form, and the terms and conditions relating to the form, and, if in registered form, the denominations in which we will issue the debt securities if other than $1,000 or a multiple of $1,000 and, if in bearer form, the denominations in which we will issue the debt securities if other than $5,000;

 

  the identity of the trustee of the debt securities of the series and, if other than the trustee, the identity of each security registrar and/or paying agent for debt securities of the series;

 

  the period or periods during which the price or prices, including any premium at which, the currency or currencies in which, and the other terms and conditions upon which, we may redeem the debt securities at our option, if we have such an option;

 

  any obligation that we have to redeem, repay or purchase debt securities under any sinking fund or similar provision or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the terms and conditions upon which we will redeem, repay or purchase all or a portion of the debt securities under that obligation;

 

  the currency or currencies in which we will sell the debt securities and in which the debt securities will be denominated and payable;

 

  whether the amount of payment of principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount or interest on, the debt securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method and the manner in which the amounts will be determined;

 

  whether the principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, additional amounts or interest on, the debt securities of the series are to be payable, at our election or at the election of a holder of the debt securities, in a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or stated to be payable, the period or periods during which, and the terms and conditions upon which, this election may be made, and the time and manner of, and identity of the exchange rate agent responsible for, determining the exchange rate between the currency or currencies in which the debt securities are denominated or stated to be payable and the currency or currencies in which the debt securities will be payable;

 

  the designation of the initial exchange rate agent, if any, or any depositaries;

 

  any provisions granting special rights to the holders of the debt securities of the series at the occurrence of named events;

 

  any additions to, modifications of or deletions from the terms of the debt securities with respect to the events of default or covenants contained in the indenture;

 

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  whether the debt securities of the series will be issued in certificated or book-entry form and the related terms and conditions, including whether any debt securities will be issued in temporary and/or permanent global form, and if so, whether the owners of interests in any permanent global debt security may exchange those interests for debt securities of that series and of like tenor of any authorized form and denomination and the circumstances under which any exchanges may occur, if other than in the manner provided in the indenture (Section 305), and, if debt securities of or within the series are to be issuable as a global debt security, the identity of the depositary for such series;

 

  the date as of which any bearer securities, and/or temporary global debt security representing outstanding securities of or within the series will be dated if other than the date of original issuance of the first debt security of the series to be issued;

 

  if the debt securities will be issued in definitive form only upon our receipt, or the trustee’s receipt, of certificates or other documents, or upon the satisfaction of conditions, a description of those certificates, documents or conditions;

 

  if the debt securities will be issued upon the exercise of debt warrants, the time, manner and place for the debt securities to be authenticated and delivered;

 

  the applicability, if any, of the defeasance and covenant defeasance provisions of the indenture, as described below under “Modification of the Indentures—Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance”;

 

  any applicable U.S. federal income tax consequences, including whether and under what circumstances we will pay any additional amounts, as contemplated in the indenture on the debt securities, to any holder who is not a U.S. person in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge withheld or deducted and, if we will pay additional amounts, whether, and on what terms, we will have the option to redeem the debt securities in lieu of paying the additional amounts;

 

  the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the debt securities of the series;

 

  any other covenant or warranty included for the benefit of the debt securities of the series;

 

  any proposed listing of the debt securities on any securities exchange or market; and

 

  any other terms of the debt securities or of any guarantees issued in connection with the debt securities not inconsistent with the provisions of the indenture (Section 301).

 

The debt securities may provide for our payment of less than their entire principal amount if their maturity is accelerated as a result of the occurrence and continuation of an event of default (Section 502). If this is the case, the debt securities would have what is referred to as “original issue discount.” Any special U.S. federal income tax, accounting and other considerations applicable to original issue discount securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We may issue debt securities from time to time, with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currencies or currency exchange rates, commodity prices, equity indices or other factors. Holders of debt securities with these features may receive payment of a principal amount on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on the applicable dates, depending upon the value on those dates of the applicable currencies or currency exchange rates, commodity prices, equity indices or other factors.

 

Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies or currency exchange rates, commodity prices, equity indices or other factors to which the amount payable on that date is linked and additional tax considerations will be included in the applicable prospectus supplement. All debt securities of any one series will be substantially identical, except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided by an officers’ certificate or in any supplement to the applicable indenture. We are not required to issue all of the debt securities of a series at the same time, and, unless otherwise provided in the applicable indenture, supplemental indenture or officers’ certificate, we may re-open a series without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of that series to issue additional debt securities of that series.

 

The indentures do not contain any provisions that limit our ability to incur indebtedness or that would protect holders of debt securities in the event we become a party to a highly-leveraged or similar transaction in which we would incur or acquire a large amount of additional debt, but such provisions may appear in the applicable prospectus supplement. You should refer to the applicable prospectus supplement for information regarding any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the events of default or covenants that are described below, including any addition of a covenant or other provision providing event risk or similar protection.

 

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Guarantees

 

Debt securities may be issued and unconditionally and irrevocably guaranteed by us or certain of our subsidiaries, if any, that are listed as guarantors in the applicable supplement to this prospectus. Any guarantee would cover the timely payment of the principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, interest or sinking fund payments on, the debt securities, whether we make the payment at a maturity date, as a result of acceleration or redemption or otherwise. We will more fully describe the existence and terms of any guarantee of any of our debt securities by us or our subsidiaries in the prospectus supplement relating to those debt securities.

 

Denominations, Interest, Registration and Transfer

 

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, any debt securities of any series that we issue in registered form will be issued in denominations of $1,000 and multiples of $1,000, and debt securities of any series that we issue in bearer form will be issued in denominations of $5,000 (Section 302).

 

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, the principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount or interest on, any series of debt securities will be payable in the currency designated in the prospectus supplement at the corporate trust office of the trustee, initially, the corporate trust office of the trustee to be named in the senior indenture. At our option, however, payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the person entitled to the interest payment as it appears in the security register for the series or by wire transfer of funds to that person at an account maintained within the United States (Sections 301, 305, 307 and 1002). We may at any time designate additional paying agents or rescind designation of any paying agents or approve a change in the office through which any paying agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for any series. All monies that we pay to a paying agent for the payment of any principal of, or any premium, make-whole amount, interest or additional amounts on, any debt security which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after that payment became due and payable will be repaid to us. After that time, the holder of the debt security will be able to look only to us for payment (Section 1003).

 

Any interest that we do not punctually pay on any interest payment date with respect to a debt security will cease to be payable to the holder on the applicable regular record date and may either:

 

  be paid to the holder at the close of business on a Special Record Date for the payment of defaulted interest, to be determined by the trustee (Sections 101 and 307); or

 

  be paid at any time in any other lawful manner, as more fully described in the indentures.

 

Subject to certain limitations imposed upon debt securities issued in book-entry form, debt securities of any series will be exchangeable for other debt securities of the same series and of the same total principal amount and authorized denomination upon the surrender of the debt securities at the corporate trust office of the trustee. In addition, subject to certain limitations imposed upon debt securities issued in book-entry form, the debt securities of any series may be surrendered for conversion, transfer or exchange at the corporate trust office of the trustee. Every debt security surrendered for conversion, transfer or exchange must be duly endorsed or accompanied by a written instrument of transfer. There will be no service charge for any transfer or exchange of any debt securities, but we may require holders to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with the transfer or exchange (Section 305).

 

If the applicable prospectus supplement refers to us designating any transfer agent for any series of debt securities, in addition to the trustee, we may at any time remove the transfer agent or approve a change in the location at which the transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for any series of debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents with respect to any series of debt securities (Section 1002).

 

Neither we nor any trustee will be required to do any of the following:

 

  issue, register the transfer of or exchange debt securities of any series during a period beginning at the opening of 15 business days before there is a selection of debt securities of that series to be redeemed and ending at the close of business on the day of mailing or publication of the relevant notice of redemption;

 

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  register the transfer of or exchange any debt security, or portion thereof, called for redemption, except the unredeemed portion of any debt security being only partially redeemed;

 

  exchange any debt security in bearer form that is selected for redemption, except that a debt security in bearer form may be exchanged for a debt security in registered form of that series and like denomination, provided that the debt security in registered form must be simultaneously surrendered for redemption; or

 

  issue or register the transfer or exchange of any debt security that has been surrendered for repayment at the option of the holder, except the portion, if any, of the debt security that will not be partially or entirely repaid (Section 305).

 

Global Debt Securities

 

The debt securities of a series may be issued in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or with a custodian for a depositary identified in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and registered in the name of the depositary or its nominee. In this case, we will issue one or more global securities in a denomination or total denominations equal to the portion of the total principal amount of outstanding registered debt securities of the series to be represented by the global security or securities. We expect that any global securities issued in the United States would be deposited with The Depositary Trust Company, as depositary or its custodian. We may issue any global securities in fully registered form on a temporary or permanent basis. Unless and until a global security is exchanged for debt securities in definitive registered form, a permanent global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by a nominee to the depositary or another nominee, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor of the depositary or the successor depositary’s nominee.

 

The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any series of debt securities to be represented by a registered global security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to depositary arrangements.

 

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons that have accounts with, or are participants of, the depositary for the registered global security, or persons that may hold interests through participants. When we issue a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal amounts of the debt securities represented by the global security owned by those participants. The accounts to be credited will be designated by any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in an offering of the debt securities, or by us or the trustee if we are directly offering the debt securities. The participants’ ownership, and any transfer, of a registered global security will be shown on records maintained by the depositary, and ownership of persons who hold debt securities through participants will be reflected on the records of the participants. State and federal laws may impair a person’s ability to own, transfer or pledge interests in a registered global security.

 

So long as the depositary or its nominee is the registered owner of the global security, the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the debt securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture. Except as set forth below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the debt securities represented by the registered global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the debt securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the debt securities under the applicable indenture. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the depositary’s procedures and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which that person owns its interest to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action which a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, the depositary would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take the action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through those participants to give or take the action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

 

Payments of principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, interest or additional amounts on a registered global security will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. Neither we, the trustee, the paying agent nor the registrar, nor any other agent of ours or of the trustee, will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to, or payments made on account of, beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to the beneficial ownership interests.

 

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We expect that once the depositary receives any payment of principal of, any premium, make-whole amount, interest or additional amount on, a registered global security, the depositary will immediately credit the participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the global security, as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by the participants to owners of beneficial interests in the registered global security held through the participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of the participants.

 

If the depositary is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and we do not appoint a successor depositary within 90 days, we will issue debt securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security. In addition, we may at any time and in our sole discretion decide not to have any of the debt securities of a series represented by one or more global securities, and, in such event, we will issue debt securities in definitive form in exchange for all of the global security or securities representing the debt securities. We will register any debt securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security in the name or names that the depositary provides to the trustee. We expect that those names will be based upon directions received by the depositary from the participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security.

 

Debt securities in bearer form may also be issued in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with a common depositary for Euroclear and Clearstream, or with a nominee for the depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the specific terms and procedures of the depositary arrangement, including the specific terms of the depositary arrangement and any specific procedures, for the issuance of debt securities in definitive form in exchange for a global security in bearer form, with respect to any portion of a series of debt securities to be represented by a global security in bearer form.

 

Merger, Consolidation or Sale

 

We may consolidate with, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our assets to, or merge with or into, any other corporation, trust or entity provided that:

 

  we are the survivor in the transaction, or the survivor, if not us, is an entity organized under the laws of the United States or a state of the United States, or the State of Israel, which entity expressly assumes by supplemental indenture the due and punctual payment of the principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, interest and additional amounts on, all of the outstanding debt securities and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions contained in the indenture;

 

  immediately after giving effect to the transaction and treating any indebtedness that becomes an obligation of ours or one of our subsidiaries as a result of the transaction as having been incurred by us or our subsidiary at the time of the transaction, there is no event of default under the applicable indenture and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become an event of default; and

 

  we deliver an officers’ certificate and an opinion of our legal counsel, each as to the satisfaction of conditions contained in the applicable indenture (Sections 801 and 803).

 

This covenant would not apply to any recapitalization transaction, a change of control of us or a transaction in which we incur a large amount of additional debt, unless the transactions or change of control included a merger, consolidation or transfer or lease of substantially all of our assets. Except as may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, there are no covenants or other provisions in the indentures providing for a “put” right or increased interest or that would otherwise afford holders of debt securities additional protection in the event of a recapitalization transaction, a change of control of us or a transaction in which we incur a large amount of additional debt.

 

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Certain Covenants

 

Provision of Financial Information

 

Whether or not we are subject to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, we will file annual reports and other documents with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act as if we were so subject, on or prior to the dates by which we are or would have been required to file those documents if we were so subject. In any event, we will:

 

  file with the applicable trustee copies of the annual reports and other documents that we are or would be required to file with the SEC under Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act within 15 days of each of the respective dates by which we are or would have been required to file those reports with the SEC; and

 

  promptly upon written request and payment of the reasonable cost of duplication and delivery, supply copies of those documents to holders and any prospective holders of debt securities if filing those documents with the SEC is not permitted under the Exchange Act (Section 1005).

 

Additional Covenants

 

Any additional covenants with respect to any series of debt securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Events of Default, Notice and Waiver

 

Except as otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the following events are “events of default” with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue under the indentures:

 

  we fail for 30 days to pay any installment of interest or any additional amounts payable on any debt security of that series;

 

  we fail to pay the principal of, or any premium or make-whole amount on, any debt security of that series when due, either at maturity, redemption or otherwise;

 

  we fail to make any sinking fund payment as required for any debt security of that series;

 

  we breach or fail to perform any covenant or warranty contained in the applicable indenture, other than a covenant added solely for the benefit of a different series of debt securities issued under the applicable indenture or except as otherwise provided for in the applicable indenture, and our breach or failure to perform continues for 60 days after we have received written notice in accordance with the applicable indenture of our breach or failure to perform;

 

  we default under a bond, debenture, note, mortgage, indenture or instrument evidencing indebtedness for money borrowed by us, or by any subsidiaries of ours that we have guaranteed or for which we are directly responsible or liable as obligor or guarantor, that has a principal amount outstanding of $20,000,000 or more, other than indebtedness which is non-recourse to us or our subsidiaries, which default has caused the indebtedness to become due and payable earlier than it would otherwise have become due and payable, and the indebtedness has not been discharged or the acceleration has not been rescinded or annulled, within 30 days after written notice was provided to us in accordance with the applicable indenture;

 

  the bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization or court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or appointment of a trustee for us or of any of our Significant Subsidiaries, or for all or substantially all of our properties or the properties of our Significant Subsidiaries (Section 101); and

 

  any other event of default described in the applicable prospectus supplement and indenture (Section 501).

 

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If there is a continuing event of default with respect to outstanding debt securities of a series, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, voting as a single class, may declare immediately due and payable the principal amount or other amount as may be specified by the terms of those debt securities and any premium or make-whole amount on the debt securities of that series; provided, however, that upon the occurrence and continuation of certain defaults related to bankruptcy or insolvency, the principal (or, if any debt securities are Original Issue Discount Securities or Indexed Securities, such portion of the principal as may be specified in the terms thereof) of, and the Make-Whole Amount, if any, on, all the outstanding debt securities of that series and any accrued interest through the occurrence of such Event of Default, shall become due and payable immediately, without any declaration or other act by the trustee or any other holder. However, at any time after an acceleration with respect to debt securities of a series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may cancel the acceleration and annul its consequences if:

 

  we pay or deposit with the trustee all required payments of the principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, interest, and additional amounts on, the applicable series of debt securities, plus fees, expenses, disbursements and advances of the trustee; and

 

  all events of default, other than the nonpayment of accelerated principal, premium, or interest, with respect to the applicable series of debt securities have been cured or waived as provided in the indentures (Section 502).

 

The indentures also provide that the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may waive any past default with respect to that series and its consequences (except in respect of certain events of default related to bankruptcy or insolvency, the waiver of which requires approval of a majority in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities under the applicable indenture), except a default involving:

 

  our failure to pay the principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, interest or additional amounts on, any debt security; or

 

  a covenant or provision contained in the applicable indenture that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each outstanding debt security affected by the default (Section 513).

 

The trustee is generally required to give notice to the holders of debt securities of each affected series within 90 days of a default actually known to a Responsible Officer of the trustee unless the default has been cured or waived. The trustee may, however, withhold notice of default if the Responsible Officers of the trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the holders of the debt securities of that series unless the default relates to:

 

  our failure to pay the principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, interest or additional amounts on, any debt security of that series; or

 

  any sinking fund installment for any debt securities of that series (Sections 101 and 601).

 

Each indenture provides that no holder of debt securities of any series may institute a proceeding with respect to the indenture or for any remedy under the indenture, unless the trustee fails to act for 60 days after it has received a written notice of a continuing event of default with respect to the debt securities of that series from such holder and a written request to institute proceedings in respect of an event of default from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (except in respect of certain events of default related to bankruptcy or insolvency, which requires the written request of not less than 25% in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities under the applicable indenture), as well as an offer of indemnity satisfactory to the trustee; provided, that no direction inconsistent with such request has been given to the trustee during such 60-day period by the holders of a majority in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of that series (Section 507). This provision will not prevent, however, any holder of debt securities from instituting suit for the enforcement of payment of the principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, interest or additional amounts on, the debt securities at their respective due dates (Section 508).

 

Subject to provisions in each indenture relating to the trustee’s duties in case of default, the trustee is not under an obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request or direction of any holders of any series of debt securities then outstanding, unless the holders have offered to the trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to it (Section 602). Subject to these provisions for the indemnification of the trustee, the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities under the applicable indenture will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or of exercising any trust or power conferred upon the trustee. The trustee may, however, refuse to follow any direction which conflicts with any law or the applicable indenture, which may involve the trustee in personal liability or which may be unduly prejudicial to the holders of debt securities of the applicable series not joining in the direction (Section 512).

 

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Within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year, we must deliver to the trustee a certificate, signed by one of several specified officers, stating that officer’s knowledge of our compliance with all the conditions and covenants under the applicable indenture, and, in the event of any noncompliance, specifying the noncompliance and the nature and status of the noncompliance (Section 1006).

 

Modification of the Indentures

 

Modification Without Consent of the Holders

 

Together with the trustee, we may, when authorized by our Board of Directors, modify each of the indentures without the consent of any holder of debt securities for any of the following purposes:

 

  to evidence the succession of another person to us as obligor under the indenture;

 

  to add to our existing covenants additional covenants for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

  to add events of default for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities;

 

  to add or change any provisions of the indenture to facilitate the issuance of, or to liberalize the terms of, debt securities in bearer form, or to permit or facilitate the issuance of debt securities in uncertificated form, provided that this action will not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

  to add, change or eliminate any provisions of the indenture, provided that any addition, change or elimination shall neither apply to any debt security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor modify the rights of the holder of any debt security with respect to such provision or become effective only when there are no outstanding debt securities;

 

  to secure previously unsecured debt securities;

 

  to establish the form or terms of debt securities of any series, including the provisions and procedures, if applicable, for the conversion or exchange of the debt securities into our ordinary shares or other securities or property;

 

  to evidence and provide for the acceptance or appointment of a successor trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under the indenture by more than one trustee;

 

  to make any provision with respect to the conversion or exchange of rights of holders pursuant to the requirements of the indenture;

 

  to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture, provided that the action does not adversely affect the interests of holders of debt securities of any series issued under the indenture;

 

  to close the indenture with respect to the authentication and delivery of additional series of debt securities or to qualify, or maintain qualification of, the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act; or

 

  to supplement any of the provisions of the indenture to the extent necessary to permit or facilitate defeasance and discharge of any series of debt securities, provided that the action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of any series in any material respect (Section 901).

 

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Modification With Consent of Holders

 

Together with the trustee, we may, when authorized by our Board of Directors, also make modifications and amendments to each indenture with the consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of all affected series. Without the consent of each affected holder, however, no modification to either indenture may:

 

  change the stated maturity of the principal of, or any premium, make-whole amount or installment of principal of, or interest on, any debt security;

 

  reduce the principal amount of, or the rate or amount of interest on, or any premium or make-whole amount payable on redemption of, or any additional amounts payable with respect to, any debt security or change any obligation to pay additional amounts except as permitted by the indenture;

 

  reduce the amount of principal of an original issue discount security or make-whole amount that would be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity of the original discount or other security, or would be provable in bankruptcy, or adversely affect any right of repayment of the holder of any debt security;

 

  change the place of payment or the currency or currencies of payment of the principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, interest, or additional amounts on, any debt security;

 

  impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to any debt security;

 

  reduce the percentage of the holders of outstanding debt securities of any series necessary to modify or amend the indenture, to waive compliance with provisions of the indenture or defaults and their consequences under the indenture, or to reduce the quorum or voting requirements contained in the indenture;

 

  make any change that adversely affects the right to convert or exchange any debt security other than as permitted by the indenture or decrease the conversion or exchange rate or increase the conversion or exchange price of any such debt security; or

 

  modify any of the foregoing provisions or any of the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or covenants, except to increase the required percentage of holders necessary to effect that action or to provide that other provisions may not be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of the debt security (Section 902).

 

Documentation

 

Any modification or amendment of an indenture, whether effected with or without the consent of any holder, will be documented in a supplemental indenture.

 

Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

 

Unless the terms of a series of debt securities provide otherwise, under the indentures, we may discharge some of our respective obligations to holders of any series of debt securities that:

 

  have not already been delivered to the trustee for cancellation and that either have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year; or

 

  are scheduled for redemption within one year.

 

We can discharge these obligations by irrevocably depositing with the trustee funds in the currency or currencies in which the debt securities are payable in an amount sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on those debt securities, including principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, interest and additional amounts on, the debt securities on and up to the date of such deposit, or, if the debt securities have become due and payable, on and up to the stated maturity or redemption date, as the case may be (Section 401).

 

In addition, if the terms of the debt securities of a series permit us to do so, we may elect either of the following:

 

  to defease and be discharged from any and all obligations with respect to the debt securities, except, among other things, our obligations to the holders of Outstanding Securities (Sections 1402, 1403 and 1404);

 

  pay any additional amounts upon the occurrence of several particular tax and other events;

 

  pay the fees, expenses and indemnitees of the trustee;

 

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  register the transfer or exchange of the debt securities;
     
  replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities;

 

  maintain an office or agency for the debt securities; and

 

  hold monies for payment in trust; or

 

  to be released from our obligations with respect to the debt securities under sections of the applicable indenture described under “Certain Covenants” or, if permitted by the terms of the debt securities, our obligations with respect to any other covenant.

 

If we choose to be released from our respective obligations under the covenants, any failure to comply with any of the obligations imposed on us by the covenants will not constitute a default or an event of default with respect to the debt securities (Section 1403). However, to make either election, we must irrevocably deposit with the trustee an amount, in such currency or currencies in which the debt securities are payable at their stated maturity, or in Government Obligations (Section 101), or both, that will provide sufficient funds to pay the principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, interest and additional amounts on, the debt securities, and any mandatory sinking fund or similar payments on the debt securities, on the relevant scheduled due dates.

 

We may defease and discharge the obligations, as described in the preceding paragraphs, only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that:

 

  the holders of the debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the defeasance or covenant defeasance described in the previous paragraphs and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the defeasance or covenant defeasance had not occurred; and

 

  in the case of defeasance, the opinion of counsel must refer to, and be based upon, a ruling of the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, or a change in applicable U.S. federal income tax laws occurring after the date of the applicable indenture (Section 1404).

 

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, if, after we have deposited funds and/or Government Obligations to effect defeasance or covenant defeasance with respect to debt securities of any series:

 

  the holder of a debt security of the series elects to receive payment in a currency other than that in which the deposit has been made in respect of the debt security (Section 301); or

 

  a conversion event, as defined below, occurs in respect of the currency in which the deposit has been made,

 

then the indebtedness represented by the debt security will be fully discharged and satisfied through the payment of the principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount and interest on, the debt security as they become due, and additional amounts, if any, out of the proceeds yielded by converting the amount deposited in respect of the debt security into the currency in which the debt security becomes payable as a result of the holder’s election or the conversion event based on the applicable market exchange rate (Section 1405).

 

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, a “conversion event” means the cessation of use of:

 

  a currency issued by the government of one or more countries other than the United States, both by the government of the country that issued that currency and for the settlement of transactions by a central bank or other public institutions of or within the international banking community;

 

  the European Community, both within the European Monetary System and, for the settlement of transactions, by public institutions of or within the European Community; or

 

  any currency for the purposes for which it was established.

 

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make all payments of principal of, and any premium, make-whole amount, interest and additional amounts on, any debt security that is payable in a foreign currency that ceases to be used by its government of issuance in United States dollars.

 

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In the event that we effect covenant defeasance with respect to any debt securities and the debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of an event of default other than:

 

  the event of default described in the fourth bullet under “Certain Covenants—Events of Default, Notice and Waiver,” which would no longer be applicable to the debt securities of that series (Section 1005); or

 

  the event of default described in the sixth bullet under “Certain Covenants—Events of Default, Notice and Waiver” with respect to a covenant as to which there has been covenant defeasance,

 

then the amount on deposit with the trustee will still be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities at the time of the acceleration resulting from the event of default. In this case, we would remain liable to make payment of the amounts due at the time of acceleration.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement may describe any additional provisions permitting defeasance or covenant defeasance, including any modifications to the provisions described above, with respect to a particular series of debt securities.

 

Conversion and Exchange Rights

 

The terms on which debt securities of any series may be convertible into or exchangeable for our ordinary shares or other securities or property will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. These terms will include:

 

  the conversion or exchange price, or the manner of calculating the price;

 

  the exchange or conversion period;

 

  whether the conversion or exchange is mandatory, or voluntary at the option of the holder or at our option;

 

  any restrictions on conversion or exchange in the event of redemption of the debt securities and any restrictions on conversion or exchange; and

 

  the means of calculating the number of shares of our ordinary shares or other securities or property of us to be received by the holders of debt securities.

 

The conversion or exchange price of any debt securities of any series that are convertible into our ordinary shares, may be adjusted for any stock dividends, stock splits, reclassification, combinations or similar transactions, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement (Article Sixteen).

 

Governing Law

 

The indentures are governed by the laws of the State of New York.

 

Redemption of Debt Securities

 

The debt securities may be subject to optional or mandatory redemption on terms and conditions described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Subject to such terms, we may opt at any time to partially or entirely redeem the debt securities.

 

From and after notice has been given as provided in the applicable indenture, if funds for the redemption of any debt securities called for redemption shall have been made available on the redemption date, the debt securities will cease to bear interest on the date fixed for the redemption specified in the notice, and the only right of the holders of the debt securities will be to receive payment of the redemption price.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this prospectus, in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time, or at any time before a specified date.

 

The prospectus supplement relating to any units we offer will, to the extent applicable, include specific terms relating to the offering, including some or all of the following:

 

  the material terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

  any material provisions relating to the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

  any material provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described above.

 

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any units we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable unit agreement, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer units. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the applicable unit agreement if we offer units, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” beginning on page 30. We urge you to read the applicable unit agreement and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

 

Each debt security and, to the extent applicable, warrant, subscription right and unit, will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

 

Global Securities

 

Registered Global Securities. We may issue the registered debt securities and, to the extent applicable, warrants, subscription rights and units, in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more registered global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by registered global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a registered global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the registered global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

 

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a registered global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

 

Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in registered global securities.

 

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a registered global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the registered global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that registered global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement, the depositary for the registered global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

 

Principal, premium, if any, interest payments on debt securities and any payments to holders with respect to warrants represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the registered global security. None of the Company, the trustees, the warrant agents or any other agent of the Company, the trustees or the warrant agents will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the registered global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

 

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property to holders on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that registered global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

 

If the depositary for any of these securities represented by a registered global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a registered global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee or warrant agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the registered global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities described in this prospectus from time to time in one or more of the following ways:

 

  through agents;

 

  to or through one or more underwriters on a firm commitment or agency basis;

 

  through put or call option transactions relating to the securities;

 

  to or through dealers, who may act as agents or principals, including a block trade (which may involve crosses) in which a broker or dealer so engaged will attempt to sell as agent but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;

 

  through privately negotiated transactions;

 

  purchases by a broker or dealer as principal and resale by such broker or dealer for its own account pursuant to this prospectus;

 

  directly to purchasers, including our affiliates, through a specific bidding or auction process, on a negotiated basis or otherwise; to or through one or more underwriters on a firm commitment or best efforts basis;

 

  exchange distributions and/or secondary distributions;

 

  ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker solicits purchasers;

 

  in an “at the market offering”, within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise;

 

  transactions not involving market makers or established trading markets, including direct sales or privately negotiated transactions;

 

  transactions in options, swaps or other derivatives that may or may not be listed on an exchange;

 

  through any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law; or

 

  through a combination of any such methods of sale.

 

At any time a particular offer of the securities covered by this prospectus is made, a revised prospectus or prospectus supplement, if required, will be distributed which will set forth the aggregate amount of securities covered by this prospectus being offered and the terms of the offering, including the name or names of any underwriters, dealers, brokers or agents, any discounts, commissions, concessions and other items constituting compensation from us and any discounts, commissions or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers. Such prospectus supplement, and, if necessary, a post-effective amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, will be filed with the SEC to reflect the disclosure of additional information with respect to the distribution of the securities covered by this prospectus. In order to comply with the securities laws of certain states, if applicable, the securities sold under this prospectus may only be sold through registered or licensed broker-dealers. In addition, in some states the securities may not be sold unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from registration or qualification requirements is available and is complied with.

 

The distribution of securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions, including block transactions and transactions on the Nasdaq Capital Market or any other organized market where the securities may be traded. The securities may be sold at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, or at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices relating to the prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. The consideration may be cash or another form negotiated by the parties. Agents, underwriters or broker-dealers may be paid compensation for offering and selling the securities. That compensation may be in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions to be received from us or from the purchasers of the securities. Any dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and compensation received by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts. If any such dealers or agents were deemed to be underwriters, they may be subject to statutory liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

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Agents may from time to time solicit offers to purchase the securities. If required, we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities and set forth any compensation payable to the agent. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment. Any agent selling the securities covered by this prospectus may be deemed to be an underwriter, as that term is defined in the Securities Act, of the securities.

 

To the extent that we make sales to or through one or more underwriters or agents in at-the-market offerings, we will do so pursuant to the terms of a distribution agreement between us and the underwriters or agents. If we engage in at-the-market sales pursuant to a distribution agreement, we will sell any of our listed securities to or through one or more underwriters or agents, which may act on an agency basis or on a principal basis. During the term of any such agreement, we may sell any of our listed securities on a daily basis in exchange transactions or otherwise as we agree with the underwriters or agents. The distribution agreement will provide that any of our listed securities which are sold will be sold at prices related to the then prevailing market prices for our listed securities. Therefore, exact figures regarding proceeds that will be raised or commissions to be paid cannot be determined at this time and will be described in a prospectus supplement. Pursuant to the terms of the distribution agreement, we also may agree to sell, and the relevant underwriters or agents may agree to solicit offers to purchase, blocks of our listed securities. The terms of each such distribution agreement will be set forth in more detail in a prospectus supplement to this prospectus.

 

If underwriters are used in a sale, securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale, or under delayed delivery contracts or other contractual commitments. Securities may be offered to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. If an underwriter or underwriters are used in the sale of securities, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter or underwriters, as well as any other underwriter or underwriters, with respect to a particular underwritten offering of securities, and will set forth the terms of the transactions, including compensation of the underwriters and dealers and the public offering price, if applicable. The prospectus and prospectus supplement will be used by the underwriters to resell the securities.

 

If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities, we or an underwriter will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. To the extent required, we will set forth in the prospectus supplement the name of the dealer and the terms of the transactions. 

 

We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities and may make sales of securities directly to institutional investors or others. These persons may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any resale of the securities. To the extent required, the prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any such sales, including the terms of any bidding or auction process, if used.

 

Agents, underwriters and dealers may be entitled under agreements which may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against specified liabilities, including liabilities incurred under the Securities Act, or to contribution by us to payments they may be required to make in respect of such liabilities. If required, the prospectus supplement will describe the terms and conditions of the indemnification or contribution. Some of the agents, underwriters or dealers, or their affiliates may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us or our subsidiaries.

 

Any person participating in the distribution of securities registered under the registration statement that includes this prospectus will be subject to applicable provisions of the Exchange Act, and the applicable SEC rules and regulations, including, among others, Regulation M, which may limit the timing of purchases and sales of any of our securities by that person. Furthermore, Regulation M may restrict the ability of any person engaged in the distribution of our securities to engage in market-making activities with respect to our securities. These restrictions may affect the marketability of our securities and the ability of any person or entity to engage in market-making activities with respect to our securities.

 

Certain persons participating in an offering may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions, penalty bids and other transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the offered securities. These activities may maintain the price of the offered securities at levels above those that might otherwise prevail in the open market, including by entering stabilizing bids, effecting syndicate covering transactions or imposing penalty bids, each of which is described below:

 

  a stabilizing bid means the placing of any bid, or the effecting of any purchase, for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of a security.

 

  a syndicate covering transaction means the placing of any bid on behalf of the underwriting syndicate or the effecting of any purchase to reduce a short position created in connection with the offering.

 

  a penalty bid means an arrangement that permits the managing underwriter to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member in connection with the offering when offered securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in syndicate covering transactions.

 

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These transactions may be effected on an exchange or automated quotation system, if the securities are listed on that exchange or admitted for trading on that automated quotation system, or in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.

 

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers from certain types of institutions to purchase offered securities from us at the public offering price set forth in such prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. Such contracts will be subject only to those conditions set forth in the prospectus supplement and the prospectus supplement will set forth the commission payable for solicitation of such contracts.

 

In addition, ordinary shares or warrants may be issued upon conversion of or in exchange for debt securities or other securities.

 

Any underwriters to whom offered securities are sold for public offering and sale may make a market in such offered securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. The offered securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. No assurance can be given that there will be a market for the offered securities.

 

Any securities that qualify for sale pursuant to Rule 144 or Regulation S under the Securities Act may be sold under Rule 144 or Regulation S rather than pursuant to this prospectus.

 

In connection with offerings made through underwriters or agents, we may enter into agreements with such underwriters or agents pursuant to which we receive our outstanding securities in consideration for the securities being offered to the public for cash. In connection with these arrangements, the underwriters or agents may also sell securities covered by this prospectus to hedge their positions in these outstanding securities, including in short sale transactions. If so, the underwriters or agents may use the securities received from us under these arrangements to close out any related open borrowings of securities.

 

We may enter into derivative transactions with third parties or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with those derivatives, such third parties (or affiliates of such third parties) may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, such third parties (or affiliates of such third parties) may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of shares, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of shares. The third parties (or affiliates of such third parties) in such sale transactions will be underwriters and will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment).

 

We may loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities using this prospectus. Such financial institution or third party may transfer its short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a simultaneous offering of other securities offered by this prospectus or in connection with a simultaneous offering of other securities offered by this prospectus.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Certain legal matters with respect to Israeli law and with respect to the validity of the offered securities under Israeli law will be passed upon for us by Meitar Liquornik Geva Leshem Tal, Ramat Gan, Israel. Certain legal matters with respect to U.S. federal securities law will be passed upon for us by McDermott Will & Emery LLP, New York, NY. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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EXPERTS

 

The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an explanatory paragraph relating to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1(2) to the financial statements) of Kesselman & Kesselman, Certified Public Accountants (Isr.), an independent registered public accounting firm and a member firm of PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

Prior to January 1, 2019, we were subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act that are applicable to a foreign private issuer. In accordance with the Exchange Act, we filed reports, including annual reports on Form 20-F, with the SEC. We also furnished to the SEC under cover of Form 6-K material information required to be made public in Israel, filed with and made public by any stock exchange or distributed by us to our shareholders. We were also exempt from the rules under the Exchange Act prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements to shareholders and our officers, directors and principal shareholders were exempt from the “short-swing profits” reporting and liability provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act and related Exchange Act rules.

 

Effective January 1, 2019, we are required to file periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms with the SEC, which are more detailed and extensive in certain respects, and which must be filed more promptly, than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. In addition, we are now required to comply with U.S. proxy requirements and Regulation FD (Fair Disclosure) and our officers, directors and principal shareholders are subject to the beneficial ownership reporting and short-swing profit recovery requirements in Section 16 of the Exchange Act.

 

We have filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933. This prospectus is part of the registration statement but the registration statement includes and incorporates by reference additional information and exhibits. We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding companies, such as ours, that file documents electronically with the SEC. The address of that site on the worldwide web is http://www.sec.gov. The information on the SEC’s web site is not part of this prospectus, and any references to this web site or any other web site are inactive textual references only.  

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with it into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. 

 

  our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended on December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on February 27, 2019;
     
  our Current Reports on Form 8-K (other than the information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or 7.01 thereof or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 thereof) filed with the SEC January 2, 2019, January 7, 2019, January 25, 2019, and February 27, 2019; and
     
  the description of our ordinary shares contained in Item 1 of the Registration Statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-37521), filed with the SEC on July 28, 2015, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

All filings filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial filing of this registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of such registration statement (excluding information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 and 7.01 of Form 8-K) shall also be deemed to be incorporated by reference into the prospectus.

 

You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. Any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for the purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a later statement contained in this prospectus or in any other document incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

  

We will provide you without charge, upon your written or oral request, a copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, other than exhibits to such documents which are not specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. Please direct your written or telephone requests to 12 Hartom Street, Har Hotzvim, Jerusalem 9777512, Israel Attn: Chief Financial Officer, telephone number +972 (2) 586 4657. You may also obtain information about us by visiting our website at www.intecpharma.com. Except for the specific incorporated documents listed above, no information available on or through our website shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

 

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ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

 

We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Israel. Service of process upon us and upon certain of our directors and officers and the Israeli experts named in this prospectus, certain of whom reside outside the United States, may be difficult to obtain within the United States. Furthermore, because substantially all of our assets and certain of our directors and officers are located outside the United States, any judgment obtained in the United States against us or any of our directors and officers may not be collectible within the United States.

 

It may be difficult to assert U.S. securities law claims in original actions instituted in Israel. Israeli courts may refuse to hear a claim based on a violation of U.S. securities laws reasoning that Israel is not the most appropriate forum to bring such a claim. In addition, even if an Israeli court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that Israeli law and not U.S. law is applicable to the claim. If U.S. law is found to be applicable, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proved as a fact which can be a time-consuming and costly process. Certain matters of procedure will also be governed by Israeli law.

 

Subject to specified time limitations and legal procedures, Israeli courts may enforce a United States judgment in a civil matter which, subject to certain exceptions, is non-appealable, including judgments based upon the civil liability provisions of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and including a monetary or compensatory judgment in a non-civil matter, provided that:

 

  the judgments are obtained after due process before a court of competent jurisdiction, according to the laws of the state in which the judgment is given and the rules of private international law currently prevailing in Israel;

 

  the prevailing law of the foreign state in which the judgments were rendered allows the enforcement of judgments of Israeli courts (however, the Israeli courts may waive this requirement following a request by the attorney general);

 

  adequate service of process has been effected and the defendant has had a reasonable opportunity to be heard and to present his or her evidence;

 

  the judgments are not contrary to public policy, and the enforcement of the civil liabilities set forth in the judgments does not impair the security or sovereignty of the State of Israel;

 

  the judgments were not obtained by fraud and do not conflict with any other valid judgment in the same matter between the same parties;

 

  an action between the same parties in the same matter is not pending in any Israeli court at the time the lawsuit is instituted in the foreign court; and

 

  the obligations under the judgment are enforceable according to the laws of the State of Israel and according to the law of the foreign state in which the relief was granted.

 

We have irrevocably appointed Intec Pharma, Inc., as our agent to receive service of process in any action against us in any United States federal or state court arising out of this offering or any purchase or sale of securities in connection with this offering.

 

If a foreign judgment is enforced by an Israeli court, it generally will be payable in Israeli currency, which can then be converted into non-Israeli currency and transferred out of Israel. Under existing Israeli law, a foreign judgment payable in foreign currency may be paid in Israeli currency at the rate of exchange in force on the date of the payment. Current Israeli exchange control regulations also permit a judgment debtor to make payment in foreign currency. Pending collection, the amount of the judgment of an Israeli court stated in Israeli currency ordinarily will be linked to the Israeli consumer price index plus interest at the annual statutory rate set by Israeli regulations prevailing at the time. Judgment creditors must bear the risk of unfavorable exchange rates.

 

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INTEC PHARMA LTD.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Up to $75,000,000 

Ordinary Shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cowen

 

 

 

 

 

March 28, 2019